Abstract

Atoms are structured from Loopons. Loopons are a variety of Einstein’s Photons. Loopons are Photons whose length has been warped to a closed circular shape. Their closed shape produces their properties of mass and electrical charge. The size and shape of a Loopon Electron is the same as its circular orbit. Loopon Electrons are correctly governed by Special Relativity. Loopon Electrons can rotate slowly or at relativistic speeds. At relativistic speeds, Loopon Electrons warp in accord with Special Relativity. Their mass increases, their circumferential length contracts and their passage of time slows. Other pertinent Loopon Electron physical quantities containing dimensions of mass, length or time, also warp. A Loopon Electron’s relativistic speed-of-light, with its dimensions length/time, is warped to slower. Warped Loopon Electrons also produce a surrounding field of warpage. Warped Loopon Electrons and their warped fields produce a transparent material’s slowed speed-of-light and its Index of Refraction. Photons traversing within a transparent material proceed at a slower speed with a shortened wavelength and lesser frequency. Photons obliquely entering or leaving a transparent material bend and change speed, the bending and speed changing occurring in the field immediately outside of the transparent material.

© 2018 The Author(s)

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