Abstract

Spontaneous fluorescence bands of erbium-, holmium-, and thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibers are studied experimentally and theoretically. From experimental data and for each trivalent ion we identify the set of optical transitions that gives rise to the observed linear fluorescence and upconversion process. Fiber perturbation theory and density matrix formalism are used to model fluorescence spectra with particular attention to modal structure, loss, and mode coupling in the fiber. The relationship between the experimental emission spectrum of thulium-doped fiber and the theoretical model is discussed.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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