Abstract

Hard, impermeable, glassy, metal phosphate films have been fabricated inexpensively by the use of a spin-coating and low-temperature-curing technique. Films that are suitable for use as monomode waveguides in biosensors have been identified through an examination of the optical and chemical properties of films containing Fe, Al, Ga, In, Cr, or V. The refractive index is controlled over the range 1.49–1.78 by varying the film composition. The film thickness is controlled over the range 50–1200 nm by varying the spin speed and the deposition temperature. Films can be patterned by photolithography or by embossing. Input coupling through an embossed grating of 833-nm pitch is demonstrated.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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