Abstract

The structure, fabrication, and theory of a three-dimensional planarized optoelectronic clock signal distribution device, based on a thin light-guiding substrate in conjunction with a two-dimensional polymer holographic grating array, are described. We have demonstrated previously a 25-GHz 1-to-42 (6 × 7) highly parallel fan-out interconnect with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 dB. We present theoretical research that focuses on generating a globally uniform fan-out distribution. An objective function aimed at equalizing the intensities among the fan-out beams is established. For an arbitrary M × N fan-out distribution, there are M + N + 1 sets of holograms needed to be recorded independently to provide the required equal fan-outs. The efficiency of each hologram is determined precisely. The angular misalignment, wavelength dispersion, and spot-size problems are discussed further, together with their tolerance requirements on the size of the photoreceivers integrated on the multichip modules. Employment of 0.25-pitch gradient index (GRIN) lenses as a collimator and as a focusing element is demonstrated experimentally. Optical beam profile manipulation and packaging tolerance are enhanced greatly with GRIN lenses. Finally, clock skew problems associated with the proposed system are discussed, and schemes to minimize the skew are proposed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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