Abstract

We present a method for simulating multiple diffraction in imaging systems based on the Huygens–Fresnel principle. The method accounts for the effects of both aberrations and diffraction and is entirely performed using Monte Carlo ray tracing. We compare the results of this method to those of reference simulations for field propagation through optical systems and for the calculation of point spread functions. The method can accurately model a wide variety of optical systems beyond the exit pupil approximation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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