Abstract

In this study, we report on the three-dimensional (3D) characterization of a spray in terms of its droplet Sauter mean diameter (SMD) using the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)/Mie ratio technique. The spray structure is analyzed for a multi-hole direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) injector. A calibration curve to convert the LIF/Mie ratio to droplet diameter is deduced using LIF/Mie imaging and analysis of single droplets generated by a droplet generator. The DISI spray investigated here is optically sectioned by means of two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging to suppress the intensity of multiple light scattering from LIF and Mie images prior to their ratio. A series of calibrated LIF/Mie ratio images of spray is then recorded at several depths along the z direction following the light sheet scanning of the spray. The droplet SMD ranges from less than 5 μm up to a maximum of 50 μm in single-shot images. The averaged SMD results (1–30 μm) obtained by using the calibration curve from the droplet generator are compared with measurement results from phase-Doppler anemometry. Finally, a 3D map is reconstructed from the successive 2D layers generated from spray scanning. The resulting 3D representation of the droplet SMD shows a non-symmetric spray structure produced by the studied multi-hole injector, which cannot be resolved by analyzing only one central plane.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

10 May 2019: Corrections were made to several sections.


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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  21. A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, S. G. Pettersson, and M. Aldén, “High-speed structured planar laser illumination for contrast improvement of two-phase flow images,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2752–2754 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  34. E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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  36. Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “Reliable LIF/Mie droplet sizing in sprays using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 4480–4492 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  41. R. A. Mugele and H. D. Evans, “Droplet size distribution in sprays,” Indust. Eng. Chem. 43, 1317–1324 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  42. H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).
  43. L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Heldmann, S. Bornschlegel, and M. Wensing, “Investigation of Jet-to-Jet Interaction in Sprays for DISI Engines,” (2015).
  45. Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

A. P. Kulkarni and D. Deshmukh, “Improvements in laser sheet dropsizing using numerical and experimental techniques,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 110, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Krämer, E. Kull, and M. Wensing, “Flashboiling-induced targeting changes in gasoline direct injection sprays,” Int. J. Engine Res. 17, 97–107 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kannaiyan, M. V. K. Banda, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Planar Sauter mean diameter measurements in liquid centered swirl coaxial injector using laser induced fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser diffraction techniques,” Acta Astronaut. 123, 257–270 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, Y. Oh, and S. Park, “Characterization of the spray atomization process of a multi-hole gasoline direct injector based on measurements using a phase Doppler particle analyser,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 227, 951–965 (2013).

W. Zeng, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1677–1685 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, “Fluorescence modeling of droplets intersecting a focused laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1386–1388 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, “Numerical analysis of diameter influence on droplet fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2363–2370 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

G. Wigley, M. Goodwin, G. Pitcher, and D. Blondel, “Imaging and PDA analysis of a GDI spray in the near-nozzle region,” Exp. Fluids 36, 565–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and A. R. Jones, “A study of the influence of absorption on the spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity within large droplets using Mie theory, geometrical optics and imaging experiments,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 280–291 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “Fluorescence/scattering image technique for particle sizing in unsteady diesel spray,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 59, 4008–4013 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Chigier, “An assessment of spray technology—editorial,” Atomization Sprays 3, 365–371 (1993).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

R. A. Mugele and H. D. Evans, “Droplet size distribution in sprays,” Indust. Eng. Chem. 43, 1317–1324 (1951).
[Crossref]

Abraham, J.

K. Lee and J. Abraham, “Spray applications in internal combustion engines,” in Handbook of Atomization and Sprays: Theory and Applications, N. Ashgriz, ed., (Springer, Boston, MA,2011), pp. 777–810.
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, S. G. Pettersson, and M. Aldén, “High-speed structured planar laser illumination for contrast improvement of two-phase flow images,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2752–2754 (2008).
[Crossref]

Attard, W.

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Bacher, H.

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Baderschneider, K.

Bakic, S.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banda, M. V. K.

K. Kannaiyan, M. V. K. Banda, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Planar Sauter mean diameter measurements in liquid centered swirl coaxial injector using laser induced fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser diffraction techniques,” Acta Astronaut. 123, 257–270 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bareiss, S.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Berrocal, E.

M. Koegl, B. Hofbeck, K. Baderschneider, Y. N. Mishra, F. J. T. Huber, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of LIF and Mie signals from single micrometric droplets for instantaneous droplet sizing in sprays,” Opt. Express 26, 31750–31766 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “Reliable LIF/Mie droplet sizing in sprays using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 4480–4492 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, S. G. Pettersson, and M. Aldén, “High-speed structured planar laser illumination for contrast improvement of two-phase flow images,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2752–2754 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, I. Meglinski, and M. Jermy, “New model for light propagation in highly inhomogeneous polydisperse turbid media with applications in spray diagnostics,” Opt. Express 13, 9181–9195 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “3D droplet sizing and 2D optical depth measurements in sprays using SLIPI based techniques,” in 18th International Symposium on the Application of Laser and Imaging Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon (2016).

Blondel, D.

G. Wigley, M. Goodwin, G. Pitcher, and D. Blondel, “Imaging and PDA analysis of a GDI spray in the near-nozzle region,” Exp. Fluids 36, 565–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boretti, A. A.

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Bork, B.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bornschlegel, S.

M. Heldmann, S. Bornschlegel, and M. Wensing, “Investigation of Jet-to-Jet Interaction in Sprays for DISI Engines,” (2015).

Brear, M.

S. H. Jin, M. Brear, H. Watson, and S. Brewster, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 222, 1883–1894 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brear, M. J.

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Brewster, S.

S. H. Jin, M. Brear, H. Watson, and S. Brewster, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 222, 1883–1894 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bryce, W.

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Carlisle, H.

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Charalampous, G.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

Chigier, N.

N. Chigier, “An assessment of spray technology—editorial,” Atomization Sprays 3, 365–371 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[Crossref]

Conrad, C.

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deshmukh, D.

A. P. Kulkarni and D. Deshmukh, “Improvements in laser sheet dropsizing using numerical and experimental techniques,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 110, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

Domann, R.

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and A. R. Jones, “A study of the influence of absorption on the spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity within large droplets using Mie theory, geometrical optics and imaging experiments,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 280–291 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dreizler, A.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Duan, H.

H. Duan, F. Romay, Z. Syedain, B. Y. H. Liu, and A. Naqwi, “A new monodisperse droplet generator and its applications,” in 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Dearborn (2016).

Evans, H. D.

R. A. Mugele and H. D. Evans, “Droplet size distribution in sprays,” Indust. Eng. Chem. 43, 1317–1324 (1951).
[Crossref]

Farrugia, N.

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Flügel, A.

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Malarski, B. Schürer, I. Schmitz, L. Zigan, A. Flügel, and A. Leipertz, “Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1853–1860 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frackowiak, B.

Fuhrmann, N.

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Girasole, T.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” in 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon (2006), paper 1061.

Goodwin, M.

G. Wigley, M. Goodwin, G. Pitcher, and D. Blondel, “Imaging and PDA analysis of a GDI spray in the near-nozzle region,” Exp. Fluids 36, 565–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grünefeld, G.

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hardalupas, Y.

G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, “Numerical evaluation of droplet sizing based on the ratio of fluorescent and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique),” Appl. Opt. 50, 1197–1209 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, “Method to reduce errors of droplet sizing based on the ratio of fluorescent and scattered light intensities (laser-induced fluorescence/Mie technique),” Appl. Opt. 50, 3622–3637 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and A. R. Jones, “A study of the influence of absorption on the spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity within large droplets using Mie theory, geometrical optics and imaging experiments,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 280–291 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heldmann, M.

M. Heldmann, S. Bornschlegel, and M. Wensing, “Investigation of Jet-to-Jet Interaction in Sprays for DISI Engines,” (2015).

Hofbeck, B.

Höffner, J.

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Hottenbach, P.

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huber, F. J. T.

Irsig, R.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jermy, M.

Jermy, M. C.

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. H.

S. H. Jin, M. Brear, H. Watson, and S. Brewster, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 222, 1883–1894 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Jones, A. R.

R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and A. R. Jones, “A study of the influence of absorption on the spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity within large droplets using Mie theory, geometrical optics and imaging experiments,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 280–291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jönsson, J.

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kamimoto, T.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “Fluorescence/scattering image technique for particle sizing in unsteady diesel spray,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 59, 4008–4013 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing, Japan (1993), pp. 355–361.

Kannaiyan, K.

K. Kannaiyan, M. V. K. Banda, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Planar Sauter mean diameter measurements in liquid centered swirl coaxial injector using laser induced fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser diffraction techniques,” Acta Astronaut. 123, 257–270 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawahara, N.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, H. Nakasuji, and M. Sumida, “PDA measurement of transient spray formed by a DISI multi-hole injector,” in 10th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Kyoto, 2006).

Knorsch, T.

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koegl, M.

M. Koegl, B. Hofbeck, K. Baderschneider, Y. N. Mishra, F. J. T. Huber, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of LIF and Mie signals from single micrometric droplets for instantaneous droplet sizing in sprays,” Opt. Express 26, 31750–31766 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, H.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “Fluorescence/scattering image technique for particle sizing in unsteady diesel spray,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 59, 4008–4013 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing, Japan (1993), pp. 355–361.

Krämer, M.

M. Krämer, E. Kull, and M. Wensing, “Flashboiling-induced targeting changes in gasoline direct injection sprays,” Int. J. Engine Res. 17, 97–107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kristensson, E.

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “Reliable LIF/Mie droplet sizing in sprays using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 4480–4492 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, S. G. Pettersson, and M. Aldén, “High-speed structured planar laser illumination for contrast improvement of two-phase flow images,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2752–2754 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “3D droplet sizing and 2D optical depth measurements in sprays using SLIPI based techniques,” in 18th International Symposium on the Application of Laser and Imaging Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon (2016).

Krotow, I.

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kügler, D.

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Kulkarni, A. P.

A. P. Kulkarni and D. Deshmukh, “Improvements in laser sheet dropsizing using numerical and experimental techniques,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 110, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kull, E.

M. Krämer, E. Kull, and M. Wensing, “Flashboiling-induced targeting changes in gasoline direct injection sprays,” Int. J. Engine Res. 17, 97–107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le Gal, P.

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-f. F.

J. W. Powell and C.-f. F. Lee, “An investigation of multiple scattering in a hollow-cone spray,” (2007).

Lee, K.

K. Lee and J. Abraham, “Spray applications in internal combustion engines,” in Handbook of Atomization and Sprays: Theory and Applications, N. Ashgriz, ed., (Springer, Boston, MA,2011), pp. 777–810.
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, Y. Oh, and S. Park, “Characterization of the spray atomization process of a multi-hole gasoline direct injector based on measurements using a phase Doppler particle analyser,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 227, 951–965 (2013).

Leipertz, A.

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Malarski, B. Schürer, I. Schmitz, L. Zigan, A. Flügel, and A. Leipertz, “Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1853–1860 (2009).
[Crossref]

Linne, M.

Liu, B. Y. H.

H. Duan, F. Romay, Z. Syedain, B. Y. H. Liu, and A. Naqwi, “A new monodisperse droplet generator and its applications,” in 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Dearborn (2016).

Malarski, A.

Meglinski, I.

Min, K.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mishra, Y. N.

M. Koegl, B. Hofbeck, K. Baderschneider, Y. N. Mishra, F. J. T. Huber, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of LIF and Mie signals from single micrometric droplets for instantaneous droplet sizing in sprays,” Opt. Express 26, 31750–31766 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “Reliable LIF/Mie droplet sizing in sprays using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 4480–4492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “3D droplet sizing and 2D optical depth measurements in sprays using SLIPI based techniques,” in 18th International Symposium on the Application of Laser and Imaging Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon (2016).

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mugele, R. A.

R. A. Mugele and H. D. Evans, “Droplet size distribution in sprays,” Indust. Eng. Chem. 43, 1317–1324 (1951).
[Crossref]

Nakasuji, H.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, H. Nakasuji, and M. Sumida, “PDA measurement of transient spray formed by a DISI multi-hole injector,” in 10th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Kyoto, 2006).

Naqwi, A.

H. Duan, F. Romay, Z. Syedain, B. Y. H. Liu, and A. Naqwi, “A new monodisperse droplet generator and its applications,” in 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Dearborn (2016).

Oh, Y.

S. Lee, Y. Oh, and S. Park, “Characterization of the spray atomization process of a multi-hole gasoline direct injector based on measurements using a phase Doppler particle analyser,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 227, 951–965 (2013).

Park, S.

S. Lee, Y. Oh, and S. Park, “Characterization of the spray atomization process of a multi-hole gasoline direct injector based on measurements using a phase Doppler particle analyser,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 227, 951–965 (2013).

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pettersson, S. G.

Pitcher, G.

G. Wigley, M. Goodwin, G. Pitcher, and D. Blondel, “Imaging and PDA analysis of a GDI spray in the near-nozzle region,” Exp. Fluids 36, 565–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Powell, J. W.

J. W. Powell and C.-f. F. Lee, “An investigation of multiple scattering in a hollow-cone spray,” (2007).

Richter, M.

Romay, F.

H. Duan, F. Romay, Z. Syedain, B. Y. H. Liu, and A. Naqwi, “A new monodisperse droplet generator and its applications,” in 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Dearborn (2016).

Roze, C.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” in 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon (2006), paper 1061.

Schmitz, I.

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Malarski, B. Schürer, I. Schmitz, L. Zigan, A. Flügel, and A. Leipertz, “Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1853–1860 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schürer, B.

Shi, J. M.

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sick, V.

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stepowski, D.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” in 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon (2006), paper 1061.

Stojkovic, B. D.

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[Crossref]

Storch, M.

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sumida, M.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, H. Nakasuji, and M. Sumida, “PDA measurement of transient spray formed by a DISI multi-hole injector,” in 10th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Kyoto, 2006).

Syedain, Z.

H. Duan, F. Romay, Z. Syedain, B. Y. H. Liu, and A. Naqwi, “A new monodisperse droplet generator and its applications,” in 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Dearborn (2016).

Tiggesbäumker, J.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tomita, E.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, H. Nakasuji, and M. Sumida, “PDA measurement of transient spray formed by a DISI multi-hole injector,” in 10th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Kyoto, 2006).

Tropea, C.

S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, “Numerical analysis of diameter influence on droplet fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2363–2370 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, “Fluorescence modeling of droplets intersecting a focused laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1386–1388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vaidyanathan, A.

K. Kannaiyan, M. V. K. Banda, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Planar Sauter mean diameter measurements in liquid centered swirl coaxial injector using laser induced fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser diffraction techniques,” Acta Astronaut. 123, 257–270 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

W. Zeng, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1677–1685 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watson, H.

S. H. Jin, M. Brear, H. Watson, and S. Brewster, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 222, 1883–1894 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Weishäupl, R.

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

Wellander, R.

R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wensing, M.

M. Krämer, E. Kull, and M. Wensing, “Flashboiling-induced targeting changes in gasoline direct injection sprays,” Int. J. Engine Res. 17, 97–107 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Heldmann, S. Bornschlegel, and M. Wensing, “Investigation of Jet-to-Jet Interaction in Sprays for DISI Engines,” (2015).

Werquin, O.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” in 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon (2006), paper 1061.

Wigley, G.

G. Wigley, M. Goodwin, G. Pitcher, and D. Blondel, “Imaging and PDA analysis of a GDI spray in the near-nozzle region,” Exp. Fluids 36, 565–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Will, S.

Xu, M.

W. Zeng, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1677–1685 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

Yeh, C. N.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “Fluorescence/scattering image technique for particle sizing in unsteady diesel spray,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 59, 4008–4013 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing, Japan (1993), pp. 355–361.

Yoon, I.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zakis, G.

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

Zeng, W.

W. Zeng, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1677–1685 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

Zhang, G.

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

Zhang, M.

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

Zhang, Y.

W. Zeng, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1677–1685 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

Zigan, L.

M. Koegl, B. Hofbeck, K. Baderschneider, Y. N. Mishra, F. J. T. Huber, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of LIF and Mie signals from single micrometric droplets for instantaneous droplet sizing in sprays,” Opt. Express 26, 31750–31766 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Storch, Y. N. Mishra, M. Koegl, E. Kristensson, S. Will, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Two-phase SLIPI for instantaneous LIF and Mie imaging of transient fuel sprays,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5422–5425 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Malarski, B. Schürer, I. Schmitz, L. Zigan, A. Flügel, and A. Leipertz, “Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1853–1860 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

Acta Astronaut. (1)

K. Kannaiyan, M. V. K. Banda, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Planar Sauter mean diameter measurements in liquid centered swirl coaxial injector using laser induced fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser diffraction techniques,” Acta Astronaut. 123, 257–270 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, P. Hottenbach, M. Aldén, and G. Grünefeld, “Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 683–694 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atomization Sprays (1)

N. Chigier, “An assessment of spray technology—editorial,” Atomization Sprays 3, 365–371 (1993).
[Crossref]

Energy Fuels (1)

L. Zigan, I. Schmitz, A. Flügel, T. Knorsch, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Effect of fuel properties on spray breakup and evaporation studied for a multihole direct injection spark ignition injector,” Energy Fuels 24, 4341–4350 (2010).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (2)

G. Wigley, M. Goodwin, G. Pitcher, and D. Blondel, “Imaging and PDA analysis of a GDI spray in the near-nozzle region,” Exp. Fluids 36, 565–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, M. Koegl, J. Jönsson, L. Zigan, and E. Berrocal, “Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays,” Exp. Fluids 58, 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Indust. Eng. Chem. (1)

R. A. Mugele and H. D. Evans, “Droplet size distribution in sprays,” Indust. Eng. Chem. 43, 1317–1324 (1951).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Engine Res. (2)

L. Zigan, J. M. Shi, I. Krotow, I. Schmitz, M. Wensing, and A. Leipertz, “Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition-injector,” Int. J. Engine Res. 14, 543–556 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Krämer, E. Kull, and M. Wensing, “Flashboiling-induced targeting changes in gasoline direct injection sprays,” Int. J. Engine Res. 17, 97–107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Multiphase Flow (1)

A. P. Kulkarni and D. Deshmukh, “Improvements in laser sheet dropsizing using numerical and experimental techniques,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 110, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (4)

R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and A. R. Jones, “A study of the influence of absorption on the spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity within large droplets using Mie theory, geometrical optics and imaging experiments,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 280–291 (2002).
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S. Bareiss, B. Bork, S. Bakić, C. Tropea, R. Irsig, J. Tiggesbäumker, and A. Dreizler, “Application of femtosecond lasers to the polarization ratio technique for droplet sizing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 025203 (2013).
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R. Wellander, E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, “Three-dimensional measurement of the local extinction coefficient in a dense spray,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 125303 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (2)

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

W. Zeng, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 34, 1677–1685 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D (2)

S. H. Jin, M. Brear, H. Watson, and S. Brewster, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 222, 1883–1894 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, Y. Oh, and S. Park, “Characterization of the spray atomization process of a multi-hole gasoline direct injector based on measurements using a phase Doppler particle analyser,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D 227, 951–965 (2013).

Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B (1)

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “Fluorescence/scattering image technique for particle sizing in unsteady diesel spray,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. B 59, 4008–4013 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (12)

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing, Japan (1993), pp. 355–361.

K. Lee and J. Abraham, “Spray applications in internal combustion engines,” in Handbook of Atomization and Sprays: Theory and Applications, N. Ashgriz, ed., (Springer, Boston, MA,2011), pp. 777–810.
[Crossref]

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, H. Nakasuji, and M. Sumida, “PDA measurement of transient spray formed by a DISI multi-hole injector,” in 10th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (Kyoto, 2006).

A. A. Boretti, S. H. Jin, G. Zakis, M. J. Brear, W. Attard, H. Watson, H. Carlisle, and W. Bryce, “Experimental and numerical study of an air assisted fuel injector for a D.I.S.I. engine,” (2007).

M. Koegl, Y. N. Mishra, M. Storch, C. Conrad, E. Berrocal, S. Will, and L. Zigan, “Analysis of ethanol and butanol direct-injection spark-ignition sprays using two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging droplet sizing,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1756827718772496 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” in 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon (2006), paper 1061.

J. W. Powell and C.-f. F. Lee, “An investigation of multiple scattering in a hollow-cone spray,” (2007).

S. Bareiss, N. Fuhrmann, A. Dreizler, H. Bacher, J. Höffner, R. Weishäupl, and D. Kügler, “Planar droplet sizing for characterization of automotive sprays in port fuel injection applications using commercial fuel,” in Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors (Springer Netherlands, 2013), pp. 445–461.

H. Duan, F. Romay, Z. Syedain, B. Y. H. Liu, and A. Naqwi, “A new monodisperse droplet generator and its applications,” in 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Dearborn (2016).

Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, “3D droplet sizing and 2D optical depth measurements in sprays using SLIPI based techniques,” in 18th International Symposium on the Application of Laser and Imaging Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon (2016).

M. Heldmann, S. Bornschlegel, and M. Wensing, “Investigation of Jet-to-Jet Interaction in Sprays for DISI Engines,” (2015).

H. Chen, M. Xu, W. Zeng, M. Zhang, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “An improved monosize droplet generator for SMD calibration,” in 13th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Wuxi (2009).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup consists of a constant volume chamber (CVC) connected to a translation stage, 2p-SLIPI setup, and a droplet generator. Detailed CVC (bottom left) shows fuel spray illuminated with modulated light sheet of 2p-SLIPI. Detailed droplet generator (bottom right) image shows laser light sheet illuminating droplet chain. The detection consists of the beam splitters, camera objective, LIF and Mie optical filters, and two identical sCMOS cameras.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the five-hole DISI injector specifications along with the possible spray targeting regions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Macroscopic LIF (upper row) and Mie images (bottom row) of ethanol droplet chain of a 48 μm large droplet. (b) Fitting curve of LIF/Mie ratio plotted as a function of droplet diameter of ethanol droplets (0.5 vol% eosin, 293 K). The curves of the standard deviation are given as well.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Instantaneous images of LIF, Mie, and corresponding LIF/Mie ratio for ethanol DISI spray at 2552 μs aVSOI.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Instantaneous absolute SMD maps in ethanol DISI sprays at 2552 μs aVSOI. The regions between y = 20 60 mm below the nozzle exit show droplet sizes in the range of 5–45 μm. In the regions between y = 60 75 mm , the droplet SMD ranges from 20–50 μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Averaged absolute SMD maps of droplet in ethanol DISI sprays at different z planes between z = 8 mm to z = 10 mm . Recording time is at 2552 μs aVSOI.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. PDA measurement points throughout the spray image (left side) and SLIPI-SMD and PDA-SMD overlaid together (right side) for the central plane ( z = 0 mm ). Recording time is at 2552 μs aVSOI.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Side left, front, side right, and back views of the reconstructed 3D maps of droplet SMD for ethanol DISI spray. The visualization of the spray in the constant volume chamber is shown in the right image.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Back view: 3D map of the DISI spray plotted as a function of droplet SMD range, for better insight into the inner structure of the spray: 20–30 μm (left), 10–20 μm (middle), and 1–10 μm (right).
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Averaged absolute SMD cross-section maps of DISI spray. Droplet SMD ranges from about 1 μm to 30 μm. Recording time is at 2552 μs aVSOI.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. COV of SMD cross-section maps for ethanol DISI sprays. The COV maps show strong cyclic variations near the spray edges and spray front. Recording time is at 2552 μs aVSOI.

Equations (2)

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R LIF Mie = I LIF I Mie = K LIF K Mie · i = 0 n N i · d i 3 i = 0 n N i · d i 2 = K · SMD ,
R LIF Mie ( macro ) = 0.0030 · d droplet 1.41

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