Abstract

The motivation behind time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for planetary surface exploration is (1) to provide comprehensive identification of minerals (nearly all rock-forming minerals and weathering products) and many organics of prime importance including fossilized carbonaceous materials; (2) to do so ensuring that it is possible to characterize even the most sensitive materials that would be altered by current state-of-the-art pulsed lasers (e.g., dark minerals, organics). These goals are accomplished here using a lightweight, high-speed (MHz) pulsed ($\lt {100}\,{\rm ps}$) Raman spectrometer based on a high-speed microchip laser combined with a single photon avalanche diode detector array. Using a Mars analog sample set and an automated grid sampling technique, we demonstrate consistent identification of major minerals and kerogen detection at $\sim\ge {1}\%$ by volume, without losses typically associated with the two biggest problems: fluorescence interference and sample damage. Despite improvements, we find that time-resolved Raman spectroscopy is still limited by the availability of a suitable laser and detector. As technology advances and such devices become available, we expect that this technique will hold an important place in Raman spectroscopy for both commercial and planetary science applications. We also discuss the utility of Raman point mapping for planetary science (e.g., in comparison with other common techniques like infrared reflectance spectroscopy) and conclude that the choice of technique must be planetary mission-specific; one must consider whether incurring the time to map single microscopic points is worthwhile, and how many points would be sufficient to gain the required information to characterize the surface.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  31. C. J. Cochrane and J. Blacksberg, “A fast classification scheme in Raman spectroscopy for the identification mineralogical mixtures using a large database with correlated predictors,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 4259–4274 (2015).
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  33. F. Hanke, B. J. A. Mooij, F. Ariese, and U. Böttger, “The evaluation of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space-relevant samples,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 50, 969–982 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  34. G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

F. Hanke, B. J. A. Mooij, F. Ariese, and U. Böttger, “The evaluation of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space-relevant samples,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 50, 969–982 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

E. A. Cloutis, D. Hewson, D. M. Applin, J. Mann, and S. A. Mertzman, “Raman and reflectance spectroscopy of serpentinites and related hydrated silicates: effects of physical properties and observational parameters, and implications for detection and characterization on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 159, 66–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. A. Nafie, “Recent advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy. Part XII,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 49, 1874–1906 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Shkolyar and J. D. Farmer, “Biosignature preservation potential in Playa evaporites: impacts of diagenesis and implications for Mars exploration,” Astrobiology 18, 431–453 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

K. Buckley and A. G. Ryder, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in biopharmaceutical manufacturing: a short review,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 1085–1116 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Rull, S. Maurice, I. Hutchinson, A. Moral, C. Perez, and C. Diaz, and The RLS Team, “The Raman laser spectrometer for the ExoMars rover mission to Mars,” Astrobiology 17, 627–654 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, and F. R. Perez, “The SuperCam remote sensing instrument suite for the Mars 2020 Rover: a preview,” Spectroscopy 32, 50–55 (2017).

I. M. Chou and A. L. Wang, “Application of laser Raman micro-analyses to Earth and planetary materials,” J. Asian Earth Sci. 145(B), 309–333 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

E. Eshelman, M. G. Daly, G. Slater, and E. Cloutis, “Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Planet. Space Sci. 119, 200–207 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. J. Cochrane and J. Blacksberg, “A fast classification scheme in Raman spectroscopy for the identification mineralogical mixtures using a large database with correlated predictors,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 4259–4274 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 × 8, 0.7 ns time-gated SPAD line sensor for laser Raman spectroscopy and LIBS in space and rover based planetary exploration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Bernard, E. Mehner, D. Kopf, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “26 ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Proc. SPIE 8960, 89601D (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Mehner, B. Bernard, H. Giessen, D. Kopf, and B. Braun, “Sub-20-ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2940–2943 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Mehner, A. Steinmann, R. Hegenbarth, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “Stable MHz-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip laser frequency doubled by MgO:PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 231–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

The ChemCam Team, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover: body unit and combined system tests,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 167–227 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagerma, and I. J. Scowen, “The effect of laser wavelength on the Raman spectra of phenanthrene, chrysene, and tetracene: implications for extraterrestrial detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons,” Spectrochim. Acta A 76, 1–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “2 MHz repetition rate, 200 ps pulse duration from a monolithic, passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 317–320 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Popp, “UV Raman imaging—a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. L. Bishop and E. Murad, “Characterization of minerals and biogeochemical markers on Mars: a Raman and IR spectroscopic study of montmorillonite,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 480–486 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. D. Pasteris and B. Wopenka, “Necessary, but not sufficient: Raman identification of disordered carbon as a signature of ancient life,” Astrobiology 3, 727–738 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. D. Wynn-Williams and H. G. M. Edwards, “Proximal analysis of regolith habitats and protective biomolecules in situ by laser Raman spectroscopy: an overview of terrestrial Antarctic habitats and Mars analogs,” Icarus 144, 486–503 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. D. Farmer and D. J. Des Marais, “Exploring for a record of ancient Martian life,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26977–26995 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, K. M. Rockow, B. L. Jolliff, R. L. Korotev, and K. M. Viskupic, “Raman spectroscopy for mineral identification and quantification for in situ planetary surface analysis: a point count method,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 102, 19293–19306 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abbey, W.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Achilles, C. N.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adler, M.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Alajtal, A. I.

A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagerma, and I. J. Scowen, “The effect of laser wavelength on the Raman spectra of phenanthrene, chrysene, and tetracene: implications for extraterrestrial detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons,” Spectrochim. Acta A 76, 1–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alerstam, E.

Allwood, A.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Anderson, R.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Applin, D. M.

E. A. Cloutis, D. Hewson, D. M. Applin, J. Mann, and S. A. Mertzman, “Raman and reflectance spectroscopy of serpentinites and related hydrated silicates: effects of physical properties and observational parameters, and implications for detection and characterization on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 159, 66–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ariese, F.

F. Hanke, B. J. A. Mooij, F. Ariese, and U. Böttger, “The evaluation of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space-relevant samples,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 50, 969–982 (2019).
[Crossref]

Arvidson, R. E.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Asher, S.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Ashley, R. P.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
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Bass, D. S.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Beaty, D. W.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Beegle, L. W.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Bell, J. F.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Berger, G.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Bernard, B.

E. Mehner, B. Bernard, H. Giessen, D. Kopf, and B. Braun, “Sub-20-ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2940–2943 (2014).
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B. Bernard, E. Mehner, D. Kopf, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “26 ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Proc. SPIE 8960, 89601D (2014).
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D. Bersani and P. P. Lottici, “Raman spectroscopy of minerals and mineral pigments in archaeometry,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 499–530 (2016).
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L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Bibring, J.-P.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Bish, D. L.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Bishop, J. L.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

J. L. Bishop and E. Murad, “Characterization of minerals and biogeochemical markers on Mars: a Raman and IR spectroscopic study of montmorillonite,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 480–486 (2004).
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Blacksberg, J.

J. Blacksberg, E. Alerstam, Y. Maruyama, C. Cochrane, and G. R. Rossman, “A miniaturized time-resolved Raman spectrometer for planetary science based on a fast single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector array,” Appl. Opt. 55, 739–748 (2016).
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C. J. Cochrane and J. Blacksberg, “A fast classification scheme in Raman spectroscopy for the identification mineralogical mixtures using a large database with correlated predictors,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 4259–4274 (2015).
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Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 × 8, 0.7 ns time-gated SPAD line sensor for laser Raman spectroscopy and LIBS in space and rover based planetary exploration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179–189 (2014).
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Blake, D. F.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Blaney, D. L.

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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Böttger, U.

F. Hanke, B. J. A. Mooij, F. Ariese, and U. Böttger, “The evaluation of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space-relevant samples,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 50, 969–982 (2019).
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Braun, B.

B. Bernard, E. Mehner, D. Kopf, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “26 ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Proc. SPIE 8960, 89601D (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Mehner, B. Bernard, H. Giessen, D. Kopf, and B. Braun, “Sub-20-ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2940–2943 (2014).
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E. Mehner, A. Steinmann, R. Hegenbarth, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “Stable MHz-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip laser frequency doubled by MgO:PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 231–239 (2013).
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Breit, G. N.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
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Brinckerhoff, W. B.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Bristow, T. F.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Buckley, K.

Buczkowski, D. L.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Burton, A.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Calvin, W.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Carr, M.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Carrier, B.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Charbon, E.

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 × 8, 0.7 ns time-gated SPAD line sensor for laser Raman spectroscopy and LIBS in space and rover based planetary exploration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179–189 (2014).
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Chipera, S. J.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Chou, I. M.

I. M. Chou and A. L. Wang, “Application of laser Raman micro-analyses to Earth and planetary materials,” J. Asian Earth Sci. 145(B), 309–333 (2017).
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Christensen, P. R.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Clark, B. C.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Clark, R. N.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Clegg, S.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Cloutis, E.

E. Eshelman, M. G. Daly, G. Slater, and E. Cloutis, “Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Planet. Space Sci. 119, 200–207 (2015).
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Cloutis, E. A.

E. A. Cloutis, D. Hewson, D. M. Applin, J. Mann, and S. A. Mertzman, “Raman and reflectance spectroscopy of serpentinites and related hydrated silicates: effects of physical properties and observational parameters, and implications for detection and characterization on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 159, 66–83 (2018).
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R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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Cochrane, C.

Cochrane, C. J.

C. J. Cochrane and J. Blacksberg, “A fast classification scheme in Raman spectroscopy for the identification mineralogical mixtures using a large database with correlated predictors,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 4259–4274 (2015).
[Crossref]

Conrad, P.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Crisp, J. A.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Daly, M. G.

E. Eshelman, M. G. Daly, G. Slater, and E. Cloutis, “Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Planet. Space Sci. 119, 200–207 (2015).
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DeFlores, L.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Des Marais, D. J.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

J. D. Farmer and D. J. Des Marais, “Exploring for a record of ancient Martian life,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26977–26995 (1999).
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Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Diaz, C.

F. Rull, S. Maurice, I. Hutchinson, A. Moral, C. Perez, and C. Diaz, and The RLS Team, “The Raman laser spectrometer for the ExoMars rover mission to Mars,” Astrobiology 17, 627–654 (2017).
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Downs, R. T.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Drake, B.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Edgett, K. S.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Edwards, H. G. M.

H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagerma, and I. J. Scowen, “The effect of laser wavelength on the Raman spectra of phenanthrene, chrysene, and tetracene: implications for extraterrestrial detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons,” Spectrochim. Acta A 76, 1–5 (2010).
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D. D. Wynn-Williams and H. G. M. Edwards, “Proximal analysis of regolith habitats and protective biomolecules in situ by laser Raman spectroscopy: an overview of terrestrial Antarctic habitats and Mars analogs,” Icarus 144, 486–503 (2000).
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Ehlmann, B.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Ehlmann, B. L.

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Eigenbrode, J.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Elbagerma, M. A.

A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagerma, and I. J. Scowen, “The effect of laser wavelength on the Raman spectra of phenanthrene, chrysene, and tetracene: implications for extraterrestrial detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons,” Spectrochim. Acta A 76, 1–5 (2010).
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Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Eshelman, E.

E. Eshelman, M. G. Daly, G. Slater, and E. Cloutis, “Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Planet. Space Sci. 119, 200–207 (2015).
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Farmer, J. D.

S. Shkolyar and J. D. Farmer, “Biosignature preservation potential in Playa evaporites: impacts of diagenesis and implications for Mars exploration,” Astrobiology 18, 431–453 (2018).
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D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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J. D. Farmer and D. J. Des Marais, “Exploring for a record of ancient Martian life,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26977–26995 (1999).
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Farrand, W. H.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Fraeman, A. A.

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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Fries, M.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Frosch, T.

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Popp, “UV Raman imaging—a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
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Gaft, M.

M. Gaft, Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

Giessen, H.

B. Bernard, E. Mehner, D. Kopf, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “26 ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Proc. SPIE 8960, 89601D (2014).
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E. Mehner, B. Bernard, H. Giessen, D. Kopf, and B. Braun, “Sub-20-ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2940–2943 (2014).
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E. Mehner, A. Steinmann, R. Hegenbarth, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “Stable MHz-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip laser frequency doubled by MgO:PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 231–239 (2013).
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Goetz, A. F. H.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
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Grant, J. A.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Green, R. O.

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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Greenberger, R. N.

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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Grotzinger, J. P.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Gupta, S.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Hanke, F.

F. Hanke, B. J. A. Mooij, F. Ariese, and U. Böttger, “The evaluation of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space-relevant samples,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 50, 969–982 (2019).
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Haskin, L. A.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, K. M. Rockow, B. L. Jolliff, R. L. Korotev, and K. M. Viskupic, “Raman spectroscopy for mineral identification and quantification for in situ planetary surface analysis: a point count method,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 102, 19293–19306 (1997).
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Hegenbarth, R.

E. Mehner, A. Steinmann, R. Hegenbarth, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “Stable MHz-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip laser frequency doubled by MgO:PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 231–239 (2013).
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Herkenhoff, K. E.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Hewson, D.

E. A. Cloutis, D. Hewson, D. M. Applin, J. Mann, and S. A. Mertzman, “Raman and reflectance spectroscopy of serpentinites and related hydrated silicates: effects of physical properties and observational parameters, and implications for detection and characterization on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 159, 66–83 (2018).
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Hohmuth, R.

A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “2 MHz repetition rate, 200 ps pulse duration from a monolithic, passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 317–320 (2009).
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Hug, W.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Hurowitz, J. A.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Hutchinson, I.

F. Rull, S. Maurice, I. Hutchinson, A. Moral, C. Perez, and C. Diaz, and The RLS Team, “The Raman laser spectrometer for the ExoMars rover mission to Mars,” Astrobiology 17, 627–654 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, I. B.

H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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Ingley, R.

H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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Jehlicka, J.

H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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Johnson, J. R.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Jolliff, B. L.

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S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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E. Mehner, B. Bernard, H. Giessen, D. Kopf, and B. Braun, “Sub-20-ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2940–2943 (2014).
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B. Bernard, E. Mehner, D. Kopf, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “26 ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Proc. SPIE 8960, 89601D (2014).
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Langevin, Y.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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E. A. Cloutis, D. Hewson, D. M. Applin, J. Mann, and S. A. Mertzman, “Raman and reflectance spectroscopy of serpentinites and related hydrated silicates: effects of physical properties and observational parameters, and implications for detection and characterization on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 159, 66–83 (2018).
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R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, and F. R. Perez, “The SuperCam remote sensing instrument suite for the Mars 2020 Rover: a preview,” Spectroscopy 32, 50–55 (2017).

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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

McKeown, N. K.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

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D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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E. Mehner, B. Bernard, H. Giessen, D. Kopf, and B. Braun, “Sub-20-ps pulses from a passively Q-switched microchip laser at 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2940–2943 (2014).
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E. Mehner, A. Steinmann, R. Hegenbarth, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “Stable MHz-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip laser frequency doubled by MgO:PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 231–239 (2013).
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Meunier, A.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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Milkovich, S. M.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

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D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Ming, D.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Ming, D. W.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Minitti, M.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

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F. Hanke, B. J. A. Mooij, F. Ariese, and U. Böttger, “The evaluation of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for the suppression of background fluorescence from space-relevant samples,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 50, 969–982 (2019).
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Moore, C.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Moral, A.

F. Rull, S. Maurice, I. Hutchinson, A. Moral, C. Perez, and C. Diaz, and The RLS Team, “The Raman laser spectrometer for the ExoMars rover mission to Mars,” Astrobiology 17, 627–654 (2017).
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Morookian, J. M.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Morris, R. V.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Morrison, S. M.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Murad, E.

J. L. Bishop and E. Murad, “Characterization of minerals and biogeochemical markers on Mars: a Raman and IR spectroscopic study of montmorillonite,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 480–486 (2004).
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Murchie, S.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Murchie, S. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Mustard, J. F.

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, J.-P. Bibring, A. Meunier, A. A. Fraeman, and Y. Langevin, “Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars,” Nature 479, 53–60 (2011).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

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L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Nelson, T.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Newsom, H. E.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Nodop, D.

A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “2 MHz repetition rate, 200 ps pulse duration from a monolithic, passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 317–320 (2009).
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Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Onstott, T. C.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Parnell, J.

H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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Pasteris, J. D.

J. D. Pasteris and B. Wopenka, “Necessary, but not sufficient: Raman identification of disordered carbon as a signature of ancient life,” Astrobiology 3, 727–738 (2003).
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Perez, C.

F. Rull, S. Maurice, I. Hutchinson, A. Moral, C. Perez, and C. Diaz, and The RLS Team, “The Raman laser spectrometer for the ExoMars rover mission to Mars,” Astrobiology 17, 627–654 (2017).
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Perez, F. R.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, and F. R. Perez, “The SuperCam remote sensing instrument suite for the Mars 2020 Rover: a preview,” Spectroscopy 32, 50–55 (2017).

Popp, J.

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Popp, “UV Raman imaging—a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
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L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Post, J. L.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
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Rampe, E. B.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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Reid, R.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Rice, J. W.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Rice, M.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richter, W.

A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “2 MHz repetition rate, 200 ps pulse duration from a monolithic, passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 317–320 (2009).
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Rieder, R.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
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Rockow, K. M.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, K. M. Rockow, B. L. Jolliff, R. L. Korotev, and K. M. Viskupic, “Raman spectroscopy for mineral identification and quantification for in situ planetary surface analysis: a point count method,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 102, 19293–19306 (1997).
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Rossman, G. R.

Ruff, S. W.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Rull, F.

F. Rull, S. Maurice, I. Hutchinson, A. Moral, C. Perez, and C. Diaz, and The RLS Team, “The Raman laser spectrometer for the ExoMars rover mission to Mars,” Astrobiology 17, 627–654 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ryder, A. G.

Sarrazin, P.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, M.

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Popp, “UV Raman imaging—a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
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Scowen, I. J.

A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagerma, and I. J. Scowen, “The effect of laser wavelength on the Raman spectra of phenanthrene, chrysene, and tetracene: implications for extraterrestrial detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons,” Spectrochim. Acta A 76, 1–5 (2010).
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Seelos, F. P.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Sephton, M. A.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Shkolyar, S.

S. Shkolyar and J. D. Farmer, “Biosignature preservation potential in Playa evaporites: impacts of diagenesis and implications for Mars exploration,” Astrobiology 18, 431–453 (2018).
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Slater, G.

E. Eshelman, M. G. Daly, G. Slater, and E. Cloutis, “Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Planet. Space Sci. 119, 200–207 (2015).
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Snee, L. W.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sobron, P.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Soderblom, L. A.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spanovich, N.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Squyres, S. W.

S. W. Squyres, J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. H. Farrand, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, R. V. Morris, J. W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L. A. Soderblom, “In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Science 306, 1709–1714 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stack, K.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steele, A.

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Steinmann, A.

E. Mehner, A. Steinmann, R. Hegenbarth, H. Giessen, and B. Braun, “Stable MHz-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip laser frequency doubled by MgO:PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 231–239 (2013).
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Steinmetz, A.

A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “2 MHz repetition rate, 200 ps pulse duration from a monolithic, passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 317–320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stoffregen, R. E.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stolper, E. M.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sumner, D. Y.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sutley, S. J.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
[Crossref]

Swayze, G.

S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

Swayze, G. A.

G. A. Swayze, R. N. Clark, A. F. H. Goetz, K. E. Livo, G. N. Breit, F. A. Kruse, S. J. Sutley, L. W. Snee, H. A. Lowers, J. L. Post, R. E. Stoffregen, and R. P. Ashley, “Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy,” Econ. Geol. 109, 1179–1221 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tarcea, N.

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Popp, “UV Raman imaging—a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

Thiele, H.

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Popp, “UV Raman imaging—a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Treiman, A.

Mars 2020 SDT (2013), Committee members: J. F. Mustard, M. Adler, A. Allwood, D. S. Bass, D. W. Beaty, J. F. Bell, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Carr, D. J. Des Marais, B. Drake, K. S. Edgett, J. Eigenbrode, L. T. Elkins-Tanton, J. A. Grant, S. M. Milkovich, D. Ming, C. Moore, S. Murchie, T. C. Onstott, S. W. Ruff, M. A. Sephton, A. Steele, and A. Treiman, Report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team, 154 pp., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) (2013).

Treiman, A. H.

D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “2 MHz repetition rate, 200 ps pulse duration from a monolithic, passively Q-switched microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 317–320 (2009).
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Vaniman, D. T.

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H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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D. T. Vaniman, D. L. Bish, D. W. Ming, T. F. Bristow, R. V. Morris, D. F. Blake, S. J. Chipera, S. M. Morrison, A. H. Treiman, E. B. Rampe, M. Rice, C. N. Achilles, J. P. Grotzinger, S. M. McLennan, J. Williams, J. F. Bell, H. E. Newsom, R. T. Downs, S. Maurice, P. Sarrazin, A. S. Yen, J. M. Morookian, J. D. Farmer, K. Stack, R. E. Milliken, B. L. Ehlmann, D. Y. Sumner, G. Berger, J. A. Crisp, J. A. Hurowitz, R. Anderson, D. J. Des Marais, E. M. Stolper, K. S. Edgett, S. Gupta, and N. Spanovich, and MSL Science Team, “Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars,” Science 343, 1243480 (2014).
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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

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L. W. Beegle, R. Bhartia, B. Carrier, L. DeFlores, W. Abbey, S. Asher, A. Burton, M. Fries, P. Conrad, S. Clegg, K. S. Edgett, B. Ehlmann, W. Hug, R. Reid, L. Kah, K. Nealson, T. Nelson, M. Minitti, J. Popp, F. Langenhorst, P. Sobron, A. Steele, N. Tarcea, R. Wiens, K. Williford, and R. A. Yingst, “The SHERLOC investigation for MARS 2020,” in 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, LPI Contribution No. 1964, id.2839 (2017).

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H. G. M. Edwards, I. B. Hutchinson, R. Ingley, J. Parnell, P. Vitek, and J. Jehlicka, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission,” Astrobiology 13, 543–549 (2013).
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GSA Today (1)

R. N. Greenberger, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, D. L. Blaney, E. A. CLoutis, J. H. Wilson, R. O. Green, and A. A. Fraeman, “Imaging spectroscopy of geological samples and outcrops: novel insights from microns to meters,” GSA Today 25(12), 4–10 (2015).
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Icarus (1)

D. D. Wynn-Williams and H. G. M. Edwards, “Proximal analysis of regolith habitats and protective biomolecules in situ by laser Raman spectroscopy: an overview of terrestrial Antarctic habitats and Mars analogs,” Icarus 144, 486–503 (2000).
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J. Asian Earth Sci. (1)

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S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, B. L. Ehlmann, R. E. Milliken, J. L. Bishop, N. K. McKeown, E. Z. Noe Dobrea, F. P. Seelos, D. L. Buczkowski, S. M. Wiseman, R. E. Arvidson, J. J. Wray, G. Swayze, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, A. S. McEwen, and J.-P. Bibring, “A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009).

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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, K. M. Rockow, B. L. Jolliff, R. L. Korotev, and K. M. Viskupic, “Raman spectroscopy for mineral identification and quantification for in situ planetary surface analysis: a point count method,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 102, 19293–19306 (1997).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration of time evolution of Raman and fluorescence shown for a 100 ps laser pulse. The green curve represents the Raman return. The blue, magenta, and red curves represent the return from fluorescence with different lifetimes, convolved with the laser pulse. The detector time gate is illustrated by the shaded area (1 ns gate duration with 550 ps rise time and 250 ps fall time). The detected signal is the product of the relative intensity and the detector sensitivity. It is clear that a significant fraction of the fluorescence return can be rejected, even when the lifetime is as short as the laser pulse duration. In order to maximize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the time gate is activated prior to the laser pulse. This allows most of the Raman signal to be collected while a significant portion of the fluorescence is rejected. As shown, gating is most effective when the fluorescence lifetime is longer than the laser pulse duration. The time gate duration is not important, but the detector fall time has a major impact on the short lifetime fluorescence rejection capability.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the HMC laser design (left) and photograph of the prototype packaged laser with the lid removed (right).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of the time-resolved Raman system.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Short measurements of a coronene sample with different delay settings. Here, a relative intensity calibration optimized for a delay of 5950 ps has been applied to all spectra. Two Raman peaks are visible around ${1360}\;{{\rm cm}^{-1}}$ , and an additional peak is visible at $\sim\!{500}\;{{\rm cm}^{-1}}$ . The fixed pattern noise visible for later delay settings illustrates the need for an accurate relative intensity calibration that captures the pixel-to-pixel timing variations, in addition to the sensitivity and spectral response of the instrument. (b) The height of the Raman peak, marked in dashed line in subfigure (a), and the background, evaluated just left of the Raman peak. (c) The SNR of the main Raman peak as a function of the delay. The SNR is defined as ${\rm SNR}={\rm Raman}$ peak height/sqrt (background counts), i.e., ignores the fixed pattern noise.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measurement on a pure silicon wafer sample using the HMC laser and a conventional $Q$ -switched DPSS laser (TEEM Photonics). The strong broadband signal seen in the conventional DPSS laser measurement is indicative of ablation damage resulting from the high pulse energy. Despite the shorter pulse duration and higher average power (100 ps versus 600 ps), the HMC laser stays below the ablation damage threshold, and the silicon Raman spectrum is easily distinguishable. The spot size for both measurements was $\sim\!{14}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ FWHM.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. SNR versus gate delay for a HMC laser and a conventional DPSS laser. This measurement was performed using a highly fluorescent coronene sample. The sample location was fixed between the measurement, ensuring the exact same sample spot was measured. Furthermore, the pulse energy was kept low (1 nJ) to make sure there was no sample degradation. The shorter pulse duration of the HMC laser enables improved rejection of the fluorescence background, leading to significantly improved SNR.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Raman spectra from all six samples. For each sample, multiple-point spectra were taken as indicated in Table 1. For each sample, the spectra were then grouped into sets of similar spectra. This figure shows one of each spectral type that was observed, and it can be assumed that other spectra in the same set were indistinguishable from the representative spectra shown here.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Sample Details and Measurement Results after Autonomous Grid Sampling of All Six Samples a

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