Abstract

The theory of new reflectometer techniques which determine the principal angle of incidence θ¯ and the principal azimuth Ψ¯ is given. To determine θ¯, the polarizer and analyzer angles are modulated at different frequencies. The difference frequency appears in a component of the detector output, and the amplitude of this component is directly proportional to the cosine of the relative phase of the Fresnel coefficients Consequently, θ¯ is located by searching for a null in this component. A method for observing Ψ¯ is given in which angles rather than irradiances are compared. The effects of misalignments of the polarizing elements, imperfect polarizing elements, and source and detector polarization are investigated. The latter can be neglected if simple precautions are taken. Imperfect polarizing elements affect only the determination of ψ¯, and misalignments affect only the determination of θ¯. Expressions for these effects are derived. The explicit relationships for n and k in terms of θ¯and Ψ are stated, and the associated sensitivity curves are given.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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