Abstract

Melanin dominates the endogenous contrasts of in vivo third harmonic generation (THG) imaging of human skin. A recent study investigated the THG in melanin solution and a linear relationship between melanin concentration and THG intensity was reported, in contrast to the expected nonlinear relationship. Since melanin hydrocolloid solution is very different from the skin tissue, here we report our study on the origin of the melanin-enhanced THG by using a live cell model. Different from the previous conclusion, our live cell study has indicated an initial nonlinear process where the THG intensity was enhanced according to the 3.5th power of melanin mass density (MMD). When the MMD is higher than 11 mg/ml, a transition from the resonance-enhanced THG to the high-order hyper-Rayleigh scattering process occurs. This saturation phenomenon of the virtual-transition-based THG nonlinear process is attributed to the multi-melanosome-induced scattering within the sub-femtoliter focal volume.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).
  5. J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  9. S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3714–3716 (2002).
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  15. C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 387 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
  17. Y.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, “Third harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(9), 095013 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering in the third harmonic generation in silver island films,” JETP Lett. 77(4), 158–161 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, “Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,” Opt. Express 5(8), 169 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Kvamand R and M. Tyrrell, “The role of melanin in the induction of oxidative DNA base damage by ultraviolet A irradiation of DNA or melanoma cells,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(2), 209–213 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. R. Chedekel, A. B. Ahene, and L. Zeise, “Melanin standard method: empirical formula 2,” Pigm. Cell Res. 5(5), 240–246 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Wakamatsu and S. Ito, “Advanced chemical methods in melanin determination,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(3), 174–183 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Riesz, T. Sarna, and P. Meredith, “Radiative relaxation in synthetic pheomelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13985–13990 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Ibrahimand and A. F. Aubry, “Development of a melanin-based high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase and its use in the Study of Drug-Melanin Binding Interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 229(2), 272–277 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  29. C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16, 11574 (2008).
  30. G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(6), 287–296 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Y. Thong, S. H. Jee, C. C. Sun, and R. E. Boissy, “The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(3), 498–505 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

E. Bastonini, D. Kovacs, and M. Picardo, “Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: Focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk,” Ann. Dermatol. 28, 279–289 (2016).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Weng, Y.-H. Liao, M.-R. Tsai, M.-L. Wei, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076009 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, “Third harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(9), 095013 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Su, C.-S. Liao, C.-Y. Yang, G.-Y. Zhuo, S.-Y. Chen, and S.-W. Chu, “On the possible origin of bulk third harmonic generation in skin cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113702 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-F. Chang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J. Biophotonics 3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

J. Riesz, T. Sarna, and P. Meredith, “Radiative relaxation in synthetic pheomelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13985–13990 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering in the third harmonic generation in silver island films,” JETP Lett. 77(4), 158–161 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Thong, S. H. Jee, C. C. Sun, and R. E. Boissy, “The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(3), 498–505 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

K. Wakamatsu and S. Ito, “Advanced chemical methods in melanin determination,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(3), 174–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3714–3716 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

E. Kvamand R and M. Tyrrell, “The role of melanin in the induction of oxidative DNA base damage by ultraviolet A irradiation of DNA or melanoma cells,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(2), 209–213 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, “Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,” Opt. Express 5(8), 169 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

H. Ibrahimand and A. F. Aubry, “Development of a melanin-based high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase and its use in the Study of Drug-Melanin Binding Interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 229(2), 272–277 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. R. Chedekel, A. B. Ahene, and L. Zeise, “Melanin standard method: empirical formula 2,” Pigm. Cell Res. 5(5), 240–246 (1992).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(6), 287–296 (1975).
[Crossref]

Aguilar, G.

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ahene, A. B.

M. R. Chedekel, A. B. Ahene, and L. Zeise, “Melanin standard method: empirical formula 2,” Pigm. Cell Res. 5(5), 240–246 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering in the third harmonic generation in silver island films,” JETP Lett. 77(4), 158–161 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alaluf, S.

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

Atkins, D.

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aubry, A. F.

H. Ibrahimand and A. F. Aubry, “Development of a melanin-based high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase and its use in the Study of Drug-Melanin Binding Interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 229(2), 272–277 (1995).
[Crossref]

Baldeweck, T.

T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

Balu, M.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barrett, K.

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bashkatova, T. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bastonini, E.

E. Bastonini, D. Kovacs, and M. Picardo, “Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: Focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk,” Ann. Dermatol. 28, 279–289 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(6), 287–296 (1975).
[Crossref]

Blount, M.

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boissy, R. E.

H. Y. Thong, S. H. Jee, C. C. Sun, and R. E. Boissy, “The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(3), 498–505 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brenner, M.

M. Brenner and V. J. Hearing, “The protective role of melanin against UV damage in human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84(3), 539–549 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brizion, S.

T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

Carter, N.

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y.-F.

Chang, C.-F.

C.-F. Chang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J. Biophotonics 3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chedekel, M. R.

M. R. Chedekel, A. B. Ahene, and L. Zeise, “Melanin standard method: empirical formula 2,” Pigm. Cell Res. 5(5), 240–246 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-U.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16, 11574 (2008).

Chen, S.-Y.

T.-Y. Su, C.-S. Liao, C.-Y. Yang, G.-Y. Zhuo, S.-Y. Chen, and S.-W. Chu, “On the possible origin of bulk third harmonic generation in skin cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113702 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, “Third harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(9), 095013 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-T.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, B.

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.-W.

T.-Y. Su, C.-S. Liao, C.-Y. Yang, G.-Y. Zhuo, S.-Y. Chen, and S.-W. Chu, “On the possible origin of bulk third harmonic generation in skin cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113702 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cornelius, L. A.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cotta, M. A.

M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cruz-Hernández, J. C.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Da Silva, M. I. N.

M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Decencière, E.

T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

DenBaars, S. P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Deziderio, S. N.

M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diffey, B.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref]

Elovikov, S. S.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering in the third harmonic generation in silver island films,” JETP Lett. 77(4), 158–161 (2003).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

Favazza, C. P.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, D. D.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

George, J.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, J. C.

M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Graeff, C. F. O.

M. I. N. Da Silva, S. N. Deziderio, J. C. Gonzalez, C. F. O. Graeff, and M. A. Cotta, “Synthetic melanin thin films: Structural and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5803–5807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gratton, E.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hearing, V. J.

M. Brenner and V. J. Hearing, “The protective role of melanin against UV damage in human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84(3), 539–549 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heath, A.

S. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, and A. Heath, “Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(2), 112–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hennessy, A.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref]

Horton, N. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-S.

Hsu, H.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, “Third harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(9), 095013 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.-Y.

W.-H. Weng, Y.-H. Liao, M.-R. Tsai, M.-L. Wei, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ibrahimand, H.

H. Ibrahimand and A. F. Aubry, “Development of a melanin-based high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase and its use in the Study of Drug-Melanin Binding Interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 229(2), 272–277 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Wakamatsu and S. Ito, “Advanced chemical methods in melanin determination,” Pigm. Cell Res. 15(3), 174–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jassim, O.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jee, S. H.

H. Y. Thong, S. H. Jee, C. C. Sun, and R. E. Boissy, “The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(3), 498–505 (2003).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, E. M.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering in the third harmonic generation in silver island films,” JETP Lett. 77(4), 158–161 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

Komadina, J.

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kong, Y.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koudoro, S.

T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

Kovacs, D.

E. Bastonini, D. Kovacs, and M. Picardo, “Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: Focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk,” Ann. Dermatol. 28, 279–289 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krasieva, T. B.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kung, C.-T.

Kvamand R, E.

E. Kvamand R and M. Tyrrell, “The role of melanin in the induction of oxidative DNA base damage by ultraviolet A irradiation of DNA or melanoma cells,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(2), 209–213 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lagarde, J.-M.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lagarrigue, S. G.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lauze, C.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, “Third harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(9), 095013 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-J.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 387 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-W.

Liao, C.-S.

T.-Y. Su, C.-S. Liao, C.-Y. Yang, G.-Y. Zhuo, S.-Y. Chen, and S.-W. Chu, “On the possible origin of bulk third harmonic generation in skin cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.-H.

W.-H. Weng, Y.-H. Liao, M.-R. Tsai, M.-L. Wei, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076009 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.-L.

Lyu, J.-Y.

Matsumoto, S.

G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3714–3716 (2002).
[Crossref]

Meredith, P.

J. Riesz, T. Sarna, and P. Meredith, “Radiative relaxation in synthetic pheomelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13985–13990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meyer, N.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyskens, F. L.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3714–3716 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nabekawa, Y.

G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3714–3716 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nelson, J. S.

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Novikova, O. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oh, C.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Paul, C.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pena, A-M.

T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

Peshkova, A. Y.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

Picardo, M.

E. Bastonini, D. Kovacs, and M. Picardo, “Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: Focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk,” Ann. Dermatol. 28, 279–289 (2016).
[Crossref]

Questel, E.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rees, J.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito, and J. Rees, “Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation,” Pigm. Cell Res. 18(3), 220–223 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reimer, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Riesz, J.

J. Riesz, T. Sarna, and P. Meredith, “Radiative relaxation in synthetic pheomelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13985–13990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sarna, T.

J. Riesz, T. Sarna, and P. Meredith, “Radiative relaxation in synthetic pheomelanin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13985–13990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, A.-M.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Serre, G.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

Simon, M.

S. G. Lagarrigue, J. George, E. Questel, C. Lauze, N. Meyer, J.-M. Lagarde, M. Simon, A.-M. Schmitt, G. Serre, and C. Paul, “In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype,” Exp. Dermatol. 21(4), 281–286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stolnitz, M. M.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stringari, C.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Su, C.-S. Liao, C.-Y. Yang, G.-Y. Zhuo, S.-Y. Chen, and S.-W. Chu, “On the possible origin of bulk third harmonic generation in skin cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

H. Y. Thong, S. H. Jee, C. C. Sun, and R. E. Boissy, “The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(3), 498–505 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. H.

T. B. Krasieva, C. Stringari, F. Liu, C. H. Sun, Y. Kong, M. Balu, F. L. Meyskens, E. Gratton, and B. J. Tromberg, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 031107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-K.

W.-H. Weng, Y.-H. Liao, M.-R. Tsai, M.-L. Wei, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, “Third harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(9), 095013 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-F. Chang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “Multi-photon resonance enhancement of third harmonic generation in human oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin,” J. Biophotonics 3(10-11), 678–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using noninvasive higher harmonic generation microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 387 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16, 11574 (2008).

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Svaasand, L. O.

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tai, S.-P.

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 387 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331–2333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tancrède, E.

T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

Thong, H. Y.

H. Y. Thong, S. H. Jee, C. C. Sun, and R. E. Boissy, “The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour,” Br. J. Dermatol. 149(3), 498–505 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tolias, A. S.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
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Tromberg, B. J.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

E. Kvamand R and M. Tyrrell, “The role of melanin in the induction of oxidative DNA base damage by ultraviolet A irradiation of DNA or melanoma cells,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(2), 209–213 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Viator, J. Komadina, L. O. Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, “A comparative study of photoacoustic and reflectance methods for determination of epidermal melanin content,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(6), 1432–1439 (2004).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, M. M. Stolnitz, T. A. Bashkatova, O. V. Novikova, A. Y. Peshkova, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of melanin in the skin and skin-like phantoms,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 219–226 (2000).
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T. Baldeweck, E. Decencière, S. Brizion, S. Koudoro, E. Tancrède, and A-M. Pena, “3D quantification of melanin in human skin in vivo based on multiphoton microscopy and image processing,” Focus On Microscopy Conference, paper 233, Maastricht, The Netherlands (2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Nonlinear emission spectra excited by a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser of (a) natural melanosomes collected from cultured B16-F10 cells, and of (b) the synthetic melanin dispersed in 1M NaOH solution.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simultaneous endogenous a. Epi-THG image and b. Epi-TPEF image of B16-F10 live cells. c. The corresponding bright field image. d. A demonstration of ROI selection. e. Statistics of 41 combined TPEF and THG images. Mean values and standard errors are shown. Error bars show standard error. Epi-THG and Epi-TPEF are represented by magenta and yellow pseudo-colors.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Averaged TPEF pixel value of artificial melanin samples with different melanin mass densities. A strong linear relation (r-square = 0.99) between the measured TPEF intensity and melanin mass density can be found (shown as the orange line). The highly linear relationship verifies our assumption that TPEF is proportional to the melanin mass density and a simple linear equation $\textrm{TPEF} = 68 \times \textrm{MMD} + 391$ can be used to estimate the melanin mass density from TPEF pixel values.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. a. Statistics results illustrating the correlation between melanin mass density and THG enhancement ratio. b. A log-log plot of (a) with MMD below 11 mg/ml. The orange line is the linear regression. c. Data and the regression curves of two phases are plotted in the same graph. The intersection of two regression curves is at 11.00 mg/ml melanin mass density with a 5.93 THG enhanced ratio.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

erTHG = 1.19 × 10 - 3 M M D 3.47 + 1.0 ,
erTHG = 5.04 × 10 -1 × M M D 0.95 + 1.0 .
P 3 ω P ω 3 N 2 | χ ( 3 ) | 2 F ( b Δ k , b / L , f / L ) ,
F = π 2 ( b Δ k ) 2 e b Δ k / 2 .
P 3 ω N 4 ,

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