Abstract

To reveal the association between retinal microvasculature changes and coronary heart disease (CHD), we assessed the full retinal thicknesses of eight areas, the vessel density of four layers (consisting of nine areas) and the flow area in two layers with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in CHD patients and healthy controls. The mean vessel density of several layers was significantly lower in patients. The difference in choroid capillary flow (negative correlation) between the two groups was significant. Decreased vessel density and blood flow were associated with coronary artery and branch stenosis. The decreases in retinal vessel density, choroidal vessel density, and blood flow area are closely related to coronary artery and branch stenosis.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

E. De Marco, G. Vacchiano, P. Frati, R. La Russa, A. Santurro, M. Scopetti, G. Guglielmi, and V. Fineschi, “Evolution of post-mortem coronary imaging: from selective coronary arteriography to post-mortem CT-angiography and beyond,” Radiol. Med. (Torino) 123(5), 351–358 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Givehchi, M. J. Safari, S. K. Tan, M. N. B. Md Shah, F. B. M. Sani, R. R. Azman, Z. Sun, C. H. Yeong, K. H. Ng, and J. H. D. Wong, “Measurement of coronary bifurcation angle with coronary CT angiography: A phantom study,” Phys. Med. 45, 198–204 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (8)

A. H. Kashani, C. L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Bhavsar, Y. Jia, J. Wang, R. C. Patel, A. K. Lauer, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography exhibiting early flow prior to clinically observed retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep. 8, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Wirtz and R. von Känel, “Psychological Stress, Inflammation, and Coronary Heart Disease,” Curr. Cardiol. Rep. 19(11), 111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Coscas, M. Lupidi, and F. Coscas, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Maculopathy,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 60, 38–49 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Garrity, N. A. Iafe, N. Phasukkijwatana, X. Chen, and D. Sarraf, “Quantitative Analysis of Three Distinct Retinal Capillary Plexuses in Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(12), 5548–5555 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Triolo, A. Rabiolo, N. D. Shemonski, A. Fard, F. Di Matteo, R. Sacconi, P. Bettin, S. Magazzeni, G. Querques, L. E. Vazquez, P. Barboni, and F. Bandello, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Macular and Peripapillary Vessel Perfusion Density in Healthy Subjects, Glaucoma Suspects, and Glaucoma Patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5713–5722 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Berrones, G. Salcedo-Villanueva, V. Morales-Cantón, and R. Velez-Montoya, “Changes in Retinal and Choroidal Vascular Blood Flow after Oral Sildenafil: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study,” J. Ophthalmol. 2017, 7174540 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

F. M. Uçar, B. Açar, M. Gul, Ö. Özeke, and S. Aydogdu, “The Association between Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio and Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Asymptomatic Low Ejection Fraction Patients,” Korean Circ. J. 46(6), 821–826 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Townsend, L. Wilson, P. Bhatnagar, K. Wickramasinghe, M. Rayner, and M. Nichols, “Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update 2016,” Eur. Heart J. 37(42), 3232–3245 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

M. M. Castillo, G. Mowatt, A. Elders, N. Lois, C. Fraser, R. Hernández, W. Amoaku, J. M. Burr, A. Lotery, C. R. Ramsay, and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Optical coherence tomography for the monitoring of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 399–406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, X. Liu, Z. Gao, S. Pirbhulal, W. Huang, W. H. Lin, H. Zhang, N. Tan, and Y. T. Zhang, “Quantification of three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for evaluating coronary luminal stenosis using digital subtraction angiography as the standard of reference,” Biomed. Eng. Online 14(1), 50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nagiel, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “A Promising Future for Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(6), 629–630 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

D. Matsunaga, J. Yi, C. A. Puliafito, and A. H. Kashani, “OCT angiography in healthy human subjects,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(6), 510–515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Ahn, S. J. Woo, and K. H. Park, “Retinal and choroidal changes with severe hypertension and their association with visual outcome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 7775–7785 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Tabatabaee, M. R. Asharin, M. H. Dehghan, M. R. Pourbehi, M. Nasiri-Ahmadabadi, and M. Assadi, “Retinal vessel abnormalities predict coronary artery diseases,” Perfusion 28(3), 232–237 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, “Coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease: correlation between virtual intravascular endoscopic appearances and left bifurcation angulation and coronary plaques,” BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 732059 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Z. Sun and Y. Cao, “Multislice CT angiography assessment of left coronary artery: correlation between bifurcation angle and dimensions and development of coronary artery disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 79(2), e90–e95 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

G. Huang, J. L. Zhao, H. Du, X. B. Lan, and Y. H. Yin, “Coronary score adds prognostic information for patients with acute coronary syndrome,” Circ. J. 74(3), 490–495 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. McClintic, J. I. McClintic, J. D. Bisognano, and R. C. Block, “The relationship between retinal microvascular abnormalities and coronary heart disease: a review,” Am. J. Med. 123(4), 374.e1 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Viola, A. Massacesi, N. Orzalesi, R. Ratiglia, and G. Staurenghi, “Retinal angiomatous proliferation: natural history and progression of visual loss,” Retina 29(6), 732–739 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. McGeechan, G. Liew, P. Macaskill, L. Irwig, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, J. R. Vingerling, P. T. Dejong, J. C. Witteman, M. M. Breteler, J. Shaw, P. Zimmet, and T. Y. Wong, “Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease,” Ann. Intern. Med. 151(6), 404–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. A. Yannuzzi, K. B. Freund, and B. S. Takahashi, “Review of retinal angiomatous proliferation or type 3 neovascularization,” Retina 28(3), 375–384 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Shimada, A. Kawamura, R. Mori, and M. Yuzawa, “Clinicopathological findings of retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(2), 295–300 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, R. Klein, E. Rochtchina, M. D. Knudtson, B. E. Klein, T. Y. Wong, G. Burlutsky, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations,” Eur. Heart J. 28(16), 1984–1992 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, T. Y. Wong, W. Smith, R. Klein, S. R. Leeder, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vascular calibre and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death,” Heart 92(11), 1583–1587 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Tedeschi-Reiner, M. Strozzi, B. Skoric, and Z. Reiner, “Relation of atherosclerotic changes in retinal arteries to the extent of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 96(8), 1107–1109 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 352(16), 1685–1695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. B. Duncan, D. J. Couper, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. Klein, and L. D. Hubbard, “Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” JAMA 287(9), 1153–1159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. A. Yannuzzi, S. Negrão, T. Iida, C. Carvalho, H. Rodriguez-Coleman, J. Slakter, K. B. Freund, J. Sorenson, D. Orlock, and N. Borodoker, “Retinal angiomatous proliferation in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina 21(5), 416–434 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. G. Gensini, “A more meaningful scoring system for determining the severity of coronary heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 51(3), 606 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Açar, B.

F. M. Uçar, B. Açar, M. Gul, Ö. Özeke, and S. Aydogdu, “The Association between Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio and Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Asymptomatic Low Ejection Fraction Patients,” Korean Circ. J. 46(6), 821–826 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S. J.

S. J. Ahn, S. J. Woo, and K. H. Park, “Retinal and choroidal changes with severe hypertension and their association with visual outcome,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 7775–7785 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alger, H. M.

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A. Tabatabaee, M. R. Asharin, M. H. Dehghan, M. R. Pourbehi, M. Nasiri-Ahmadabadi, and M. Assadi, “Retinal vessel abnormalities predict coronary artery diseases,” Perfusion 28(3), 232–237 (2013).
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K. V. Bhavsar, Y. Jia, J. Wang, R. C. Patel, A. K. Lauer, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography exhibiting early flow prior to clinically observed retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep. 8, 53–57 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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K. V. Bhavsar, Y. Jia, J. Wang, R. C. Patel, A. K. Lauer, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography exhibiting early flow prior to clinically observed retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep. 8, 53–57 (2017).
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M. M. Castillo, G. Mowatt, A. Elders, N. Lois, C. Fraser, R. Hernández, W. Amoaku, J. M. Burr, A. Lotery, C. R. Ramsay, and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Optical coherence tomography for the monitoring of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 399–406 (2015).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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G. Coscas, M. Lupidi, and F. Coscas, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Maculopathy,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 60, 38–49 (2017).
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T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. B. Duncan, D. J. Couper, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. Klein, and L. D. Hubbard, “Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” JAMA 287(9), 1153–1159 (2002).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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De Marco, E.

E. De Marco, G. Vacchiano, P. Frati, R. La Russa, A. Santurro, M. Scopetti, G. Guglielmi, and V. Fineschi, “Evolution of post-mortem coronary imaging: from selective coronary arteriography to post-mortem CT-angiography and beyond,” Radiol. Med. (Torino) 123(5), 351–358 (2018).
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Dehghan, M. H.

A. Tabatabaee, M. R. Asharin, M. H. Dehghan, M. R. Pourbehi, M. Nasiri-Ahmadabadi, and M. Assadi, “Retinal vessel abnormalities predict coronary artery diseases,” Perfusion 28(3), 232–237 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. McGeechan, G. Liew, P. Macaskill, L. Irwig, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, J. R. Vingerling, P. T. Dejong, J. C. Witteman, M. M. Breteler, J. Shaw, P. Zimmet, and T. Y. Wong, “Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease,” Ann. Intern. Med. 151(6), 404–413 (2009).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
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T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. B. Duncan, D. J. Couper, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. Klein, and L. D. Hubbard, “Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” JAMA 287(9), 1153–1159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. M. Castillo, G. Mowatt, A. Elders, N. Lois, C. Fraser, R. Hernández, W. Amoaku, J. M. Burr, A. Lotery, C. R. Ramsay, and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Optical coherence tomography for the monitoring of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 399–406 (2015).
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G. Triolo, A. Rabiolo, N. D. Shemonski, A. Fard, F. Di Matteo, R. Sacconi, P. Bettin, S. Magazzeni, G. Querques, L. E. Vazquez, P. Barboni, and F. Bandello, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Macular and Peripapillary Vessel Perfusion Density in Healthy Subjects, Glaucoma Suspects, and Glaucoma Patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5713–5722 (2017).
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E. De Marco, G. Vacchiano, P. Frati, R. La Russa, A. Santurro, M. Scopetti, G. Guglielmi, and V. Fineschi, “Evolution of post-mortem coronary imaging: from selective coronary arteriography to post-mortem CT-angiography and beyond,” Radiol. Med. (Torino) 123(5), 351–358 (2018).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
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L. A. Yannuzzi, K. B. Freund, and B. S. Takahashi, “Review of retinal angiomatous proliferation or type 3 neovascularization,” Retina 28(3), 375–384 (2008).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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A. H. Kashani, C. L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
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S. T. Garrity, N. A. Iafe, N. Phasukkijwatana, X. Chen, and D. Sarraf, “Quantitative Analysis of Three Distinct Retinal Capillary Plexuses in Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(12), 5548–5555 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Guglielmi, G.

E. De Marco, G. Vacchiano, P. Frati, R. La Russa, A. Santurro, M. Scopetti, G. Guglielmi, and V. Fineschi, “Evolution of post-mortem coronary imaging: from selective coronary arteriography to post-mortem CT-angiography and beyond,” Radiol. Med. (Torino) 123(5), 351–358 (2018).
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F. M. Uçar, B. Açar, M. Gul, Ö. Özeke, and S. Aydogdu, “The Association between Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio and Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Asymptomatic Low Ejection Fraction Patients,” Korean Circ. J. 46(6), 821–826 (2016).
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W. Guo, X. Liu, Z. Gao, S. Pirbhulal, W. Huang, W. H. Lin, H. Zhang, N. Tan, and Y. T. Zhang, “Quantification of three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for evaluating coronary luminal stenosis using digital subtraction angiography as the standard of reference,” Biomed. Eng. Online 14(1), 50 (2015).
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G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 352(16), 1685–1695 (2005).
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Hernández, R.

M. M. Castillo, G. Mowatt, A. Elders, N. Lois, C. Fraser, R. Hernández, W. Amoaku, J. M. Burr, A. Lotery, C. R. Ramsay, and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Optical coherence tomography for the monitoring of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 399–406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

K. V. Bhavsar, Y. Jia, J. Wang, R. C. Patel, A. K. Lauer, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography exhibiting early flow prior to clinically observed retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep. 8, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, G.

G. Huang, J. L. Zhao, H. Du, X. B. Lan, and Y. H. Yin, “Coronary score adds prognostic information for patients with acute coronary syndrome,” Circ. J. 74(3), 490–495 (2010).
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Huang, W.

W. Guo, X. Liu, Z. Gao, S. Pirbhulal, W. Huang, W. H. Lin, H. Zhang, N. Tan, and Y. T. Zhang, “Quantification of three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for evaluating coronary luminal stenosis using digital subtraction angiography as the standard of reference,” Biomed. Eng. Online 14(1), 50 (2015).
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Hubbard, L. D.

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. B. Duncan, D. J. Couper, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. Klein, and L. D. Hubbard, “Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” JAMA 287(9), 1153–1159 (2002).
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Iafe, N. A.

S. T. Garrity, N. A. Iafe, N. Phasukkijwatana, X. Chen, and D. Sarraf, “Quantitative Analysis of Three Distinct Retinal Capillary Plexuses in Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(12), 5548–5555 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iida, T.

L. A. Yannuzzi, S. Negrão, T. Iida, C. Carvalho, H. Rodriguez-Coleman, J. Slakter, K. B. Freund, J. Sorenson, D. Orlock, and N. Borodoker, “Retinal angiomatous proliferation in age-related macular degeneration,” Retina 21(5), 416–434 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irwig, L.

K. McGeechan, G. Liew, P. Macaskill, L. Irwig, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, J. R. Vingerling, P. T. Dejong, J. C. Witteman, M. M. Breteler, J. Shaw, P. Zimmet, and T. Y. Wong, “Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease,” Ann. Intern. Med. 151(6), 404–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isasi, C. R.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

K. V. Bhavsar, Y. Jia, J. Wang, R. C. Patel, A. K. Lauer, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography exhibiting early flow prior to clinically observed retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep. 8, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez, M. C.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, L. C.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Judd, S. E.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kashani, A. H.

A. H. Kashani, C. L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
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D. Matsunaga, J. Yi, C. A. Puliafito, and A. H. Kashani, “OCT angiography in healthy human subjects,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 45(6), 510–515 (2014).
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Kato, A.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
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Kawamura, A.

H. Shimada, A. Kawamura, R. Mori, and M. Yuzawa, “Clinicopathological findings of retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(2), 295–300 (2007).
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Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, B. E.

K. McGeechan, G. Liew, P. Macaskill, L. Irwig, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, J. R. Vingerling, P. T. Dejong, J. C. Witteman, M. M. Breteler, J. Shaw, P. Zimmet, and T. Y. Wong, “Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease,” Ann. Intern. Med. 151(6), 404–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, R. Klein, E. Rochtchina, M. D. Knudtson, B. E. Klein, T. Y. Wong, G. Burlutsky, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations,” Eur. Heart J. 28(16), 1984–1992 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. B. Duncan, D. J. Couper, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. Klein, and L. D. Hubbard, “Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” JAMA 287(9), 1153–1159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

K. McGeechan, G. Liew, P. Macaskill, L. Irwig, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, J. R. Vingerling, P. T. Dejong, J. C. Witteman, M. M. Breteler, J. Shaw, P. Zimmet, and T. Y. Wong, “Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease,” Ann. Intern. Med. 151(6), 404–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, R. Klein, E. Rochtchina, M. D. Knudtson, B. E. Klein, T. Y. Wong, G. Burlutsky, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations,” Eur. Heart J. 28(16), 1984–1992 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, T. Y. Wong, W. Smith, R. Klein, S. R. Leeder, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vascular calibre and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death,” Heart 92(11), 1583–1587 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Wong, R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. B. Duncan, D. J. Couper, J. M. Tielsch, B. E. Klein, and L. D. Hubbard, “Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” JAMA 287(9), 1153–1159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knudtson, M. D.

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, R. Klein, E. Rochtchina, M. D. Knudtson, B. E. Klein, T. Y. Wong, G. Burlutsky, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations,” Eur. Heart J. 28(16), 1984–1992 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

La Russa, R.

E. De Marco, G. Vacchiano, P. Frati, R. La Russa, A. Santurro, M. Scopetti, G. Guglielmi, and V. Fineschi, “Evolution of post-mortem coronary imaging: from selective coronary arteriography to post-mortem CT-angiography and beyond,” Radiol. Med. (Torino) 123(5), 351–358 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lackland, D.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, X. B.

G. Huang, J. L. Zhao, H. Du, X. B. Lan, and Y. H. Yin, “Coronary score adds prognostic information for patients with acute coronary syndrome,” Circ. J. 74(3), 490–495 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, A. K.

K. V. Bhavsar, Y. Jia, J. Wang, R. C. Patel, A. K. Lauer, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography exhibiting early flow prior to clinically observed retinal angiomatous proliferation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. Case Rep. 8, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leeder, S. R.

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, T. Y. Wong, W. Smith, R. Klein, S. R. Leeder, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vascular calibre and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death,” Heart 92(11), 1583–1587 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichtman, J. H.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liew, G.

K. McGeechan, G. Liew, P. Macaskill, L. Irwig, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, J. J. Wang, P. Mitchell, J. R. Vingerling, P. T. Dejong, J. C. Witteman, M. M. Breteler, J. Shaw, P. Zimmet, and T. Y. Wong, “Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease,” Ann. Intern. Med. 151(6), 404–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, R. Klein, E. Rochtchina, M. D. Knudtson, B. E. Klein, T. Y. Wong, G. Burlutsky, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations,” Eur. Heart J. 28(16), 1984–1992 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, G. Liew, T. Y. Wong, W. Smith, R. Klein, S. R. Leeder, and P. Mitchell, “Retinal vascular calibre and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death,” Heart 92(11), 1583–1587 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W. H.

W. Guo, X. Liu, Z. Gao, S. Pirbhulal, W. Huang, W. H. Lin, H. Zhang, N. Tan, and Y. T. Zhang, “Quantification of three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for evaluating coronary luminal stenosis using digital subtraction angiography as the standard of reference,” Biomed. Eng. Online 14(1), 50 (2015).
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Lisabeth, L.

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A. Tabatabaee, M. R. Asharin, M. H. Dehghan, M. R. Pourbehi, M. Nasiri-Ahmadabadi, and M. Assadi, “Retinal vessel abnormalities predict coronary artery diseases,” Perfusion 28(3), 232–237 (2013).
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E. Tedeschi-Reiner, M. Strozzi, B. Skoric, and Z. Reiner, “Relation of atherosclerotic changes in retinal arteries to the extent of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 96(8), 1107–1109 (2005).
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A. H. Kashani, C. L. Chen, J. K. Gahm, F. Zheng, G. M. Richter, P. J. Rosenfeld, Y. Shi, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography: A comprehensive review of current methods and clinical applications,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 60, 66–100 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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F. Viola, A. Massacesi, N. Orzalesi, R. Ratiglia, and G. Staurenghi, “Retinal angiomatous proliferation: natural history and progression of visual loss,” Retina 29(6), 732–739 (2009).
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E. Tedeschi-Reiner, M. Strozzi, B. Skoric, and Z. Reiner, “Relation of atherosclerotic changes in retinal arteries to the extent of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 96(8), 1107–1109 (2005).
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E. Tedeschi-Reiner, M. Strozzi, B. Skoric, and Z. Reiner, “Relation of atherosclerotic changes in retinal arteries to the extent of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 96(8), 1107–1109 (2005).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, P. Muntner, and American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Circulation (1)

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Curr. Cardiol. Rep. (1)

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Heart (1)

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Ophthalmology (2)

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Other (1)

J. Wang, J. Jiang, Y. Zhang, Y. W. Qian, J. F. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, “The Table 2-4 in Dataset 1 are the specific data of diagram 1,2, table 2A-2E in manuscript,” figshare (2019) [retrieved 20 Feb 2019], https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7353944 .

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Dataset 1       The Table 2-4 in Dataset 1 are the specific data of diagram 1,2, table 2A-2E in manuscript.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Different layers on the retina examined by OCTA and corresponding parts in the thickness map, including the superficial, deep, outer retina and choroid capillary (A). Areas on the right eye examined by OCTA included the fovea, parafoveal circle, and superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal areas (B). Retinal thickness and vessel density chart, in which averages of retinal thickness (except in the whole image) and vessel density measurements of nine areas are calculated and automatically displayed (red frame) (C).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The mean retinal thicknesses diameters (μm) in CHD patients (group A) and controls (group B) in eight regions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The vessel density (four layers) and flow area (two layers) of CHD patients (group A) and controls (group B) (***: P<0.01).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of CAG and OCTA images between a CHD patient and control participant. Both vessel density (superficial and deep layers) and choroid flow decreased significantly when coronary artery stenosis occurred (participants’ information has been hidden). The retinal thickness has no significant difference. (CHD patient: patient with coronary heart disease. Control: normal subject. Superficial: superficial layer of OCTA image. Deep: deep layer of OCTA image. OD: right eye. OS: left eye)

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the two groups

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Table 2 Association between retinal and choroid microvasculature and every branch Gensini score

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