Abstract

We demonstrate an automatic recognition strategy for terahertz (THz) pulsed signals of breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) based on a wavelet entropy feature extraction and a machine learning classifier. The wavelet packet transform was implemented into the complexity analysis of the transmission THz signal from a breast tissue sample. A novel index of energy to Shannon entropy ratio (ESER) was proposed to distinguish different tissues. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) method and machine learning classifier were further adopted and optimized for automatic classification of the THz signal from breast IDC sample. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves are all larger than 0.89 for the three adopted classifiers. The best breast IDC recognition performance is with the precision, sensitivity and specificity of 92.85%, 89.66% and 96.67%, respectively. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ESER index together with the machine learning classifier for automatically identifying different breast tissues.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

2018 (9)

Q. Cassar, A. Al-Ibadi, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, G. Macgrogan, T. Zimmer, U. R. Pfeiffer, J.-P. Guillet, and And P. Mounaix, “Pilot study of freshly excised breast tissue response in the 300–600 GHz range,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 2930–2942 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. A. Smolyanskaya, N. V. Chernomyrdin, A. A. Konovko, K. I. Zaytsev, I. A. Ozheredov, O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, J. P. Guillet, S. A. Kozlov, Y. V. Kistenev, J. L. Coutaz, P. Mounaix, V. L. Vaks, J. H. Son, H. Cheon, V. P. Wallace, Y. Feldman, I. Popov, A. N. Yaroslavsky, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz biophotonics as a tool for studies of dielectric and spectral properties of biological tissues and liquids,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 62, 1–77 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenaweea, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(02), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Kistenev, A. V. Borisov, A. I. Knyazkova, E. A. Sandykova, V. V. Nikolaev, and D. A. Vrazhnov, “Applications of THz laser spectroscopy and machine learning for medical diagnostics,” EPJ Web Conf. 195, 10006 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Lei and K. She, “Identity vector extraction by perceptual wavelet packet entropy and convolutional neural network for voice authentication,” Entropy 20(8), 600 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Tang, M. Zhang, S. Yan, L. Xia, Z. Yang, C. Du, H. Cui, and D. Wei, “Detection of DNA oligonucleotides with base mutations by terahertz spectroscopy and microstructures,” PLoS One 13(1), e0191515 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, Y. Wang, T. Chen, D. Xu, H. Zhao, L. Chen, C. Yan, L. Tang, Y. He, H. Feng, and J. Yao, “Automatic evaluation of traumatic brain injury based on terahertz imaging with machine learning,” Opt. Express 26(5), 6371–6381 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Ashour, Y. Guo, A. R. Hawas, and G. Xu, “Ensemble of subspace discriminant classifiers for schistosomal liver fibrosis staging in mice microscopic images,” Health Inf. Sci. Syst. 6(1), 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

K. Daqrouq, H. Sweidan, A. Balamesh, and M.N. Ajour, “Off-line handwritten signature recognition by wavelet entropy and neural network,” Entropy 19(6), 252 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. J. Motlak and S. I. Hakeem, “Detection and classification of breast cancer based-on terahertz imaging technique using artificial neural network k-nearest neighbor algorithm,” Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 12(21), 10661–10668 (2017).

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, H. Cheon, S. W. Cho, S. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1122–1129 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, Y. He, K. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, E. Pickwell-Macpherson, Y. Zhao, and C. Zhang, “Composite multiscale entropy analysis of reflective terahertz signals for biological tissues,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23669–23676 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawe, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3756–3783 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. X. Yin, S. Hadjiloucas, Y. C. Zhang, M. Y. Su, Y. Miao, and D. Abbott, “Pattern identification of biomedical images with time series: Contrasting THz pulse imaging with DCE-MRIs,” Artif. Intell. Med. 67, 1–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, Y. Lu, G. Jiao, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Chen, Y. Dong, and J. Lv, “Terahertz optical properties of the cornea,” Opt. Commun. 359(6), 344–348 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, C. Li, Q. An, F. Liang, F. Qi, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Noise suppression in 94 GHz Radar-detected speech based on perceptual wavelet packet,” Entropy 18(7), 265 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

K. Meng, T. Chen, T. Chen, L. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. Zhong, Z. Li, H. Feng, and J. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K.-M. Ahn, C. Park, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413–1421 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, “Raman imaging in biochemical and biomedical applications. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer,” Chem. Rev. 113(8), 5766–5781 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert. Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Daqrouq and K. A. Azzawi, “Average framing linear prediction coding with wavelet transform for text-independent speaker identification system,” Comput. Electr. Eng. 38(6), 1467–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Li, B. N. Zhang, J. H. Fan, Y. Pang, P. Zhang, S. L. Wang, S. Zheng, B. Zhang, H. J. Yang, X. M. Xie, Z. H. Tang, H. Li, J. Y. Li, J. J. He, and Y. L. Qiao, “A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008) retrospective clinical epidemiological study of female breast cancer in China,” BMC Cancer 11(1), 364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Kim, K.-H. Jin, J.-C. Ye, J.-W. Ahn, and D.-S. Yee, “Wavelet power spectrum estimation for high-resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(1), 103–108 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Daqrouq, “Wavelet entropy and neural network for text-independent speaker identification,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intel. 24(5), 796–802 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, “Support vector machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1597–1608 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(6), 611–616 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

X. Q. Wu, K. Q. Wang, and D. Zhang, “Wavelet energy feature extraction and matching for palm print recognition,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 411–418 (2005).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

I. Daubechies, “Orthonormal basis of compactly supported wavelet,” Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 41(7), 909–996 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

X. X. Yin, S. Hadjiloucas, Y. C. Zhang, M. Y. Su, Y. Miao, and D. Abbott, “Pattern identification of biomedical images with time series: Contrasting THz pulse imaging with DCE-MRIs,” Artif. Intell. Med. 67, 1–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(6), 611–616 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, “Support vector machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1597–1608 (2007).
[Crossref]

Abramczyk, H.

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, “Raman imaging in biochemical and biomedical applications. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer,” Chem. Rev. 113(8), 5766–5781 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, A.

Ahn, J.-W.

Ahn, K.-M.

Ajour, M.N.

K. Daqrouq, H. Sweidan, A. Balamesh, and M.N. Ajour, “Off-line handwritten signature recognition by wavelet entropy and neural network,” Entropy 19(6), 252 (2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Ibadi, A.

An, Q.

F. Chen, C. Li, Q. An, F. Liang, F. Qi, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Noise suppression in 94 GHz Radar-detected speech based on perceptual wavelet packet,” Entropy 18(7), 265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ashour, A. S.

A. S. Ashour, Y. Guo, A. R. Hawas, and G. Xu, “Ensemble of subspace discriminant classifiers for schistosomal liver fibrosis staging in mice microscopic images,” Health Inf. Sci. Syst. 6(1), 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ayed, M. B.

A. Kharrat, M. B. Halima, and M. B. Ayed, “MRI brain tumor classification using support vector machines and meta-heuristic method,” In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Marrakesh, Morocco, pp. 446–451 (2015)

Azzawi, K. A.

K. Daqrouq and K. A. Azzawi, “Average framing linear prediction coding with wavelet transform for text-independent speaker identification system,” Comput. Electr. Eng. 38(6), 1467–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bailey, K.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenaweea, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(02), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Balamesh, A.

K. Daqrouq, H. Sweidan, A. Balamesh, and M.N. Ajour, “Off-line handwritten signature recognition by wavelet entropy and neural network,” Entropy 19(6), 252 (2017).
[Crossref]

Borisov, A. V.

Y. V. Kistenev, A. V. Borisov, A. I. Knyazkova, E. A. Sandykova, V. V. Nikolaev, and D. A. Vrazhnov, “Applications of THz laser spectroscopy and machine learning for medical diagnostics,” EPJ Web Conf. 195, 10006 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowman, T.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenaweea, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(02), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, M. El-Shenawe, and L. K. Campbell, “Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3756–3783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brozek-Pluska, B.

H. Abramczyk and B. Brozek-Pluska, “Raman imaging in biochemical and biomedical applications. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer,” Chem. Rev. 113(8), 5766–5781 (2013).
[Crossref]

Butola, A.

Cai, J.

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campbell, L. K.

Cao, Y.

P. Huang, Y. Cao, J. Chen, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Analysis and inspection techniques for mouse liver injury based on terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 27(18), 26014–26026 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cassar, Q.

Chakraborty, A.

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M. Tang, M. Zhang, S. Yan, L. Xia, Z. Yang, C. Du, H. Cui, and D. Wei, “Detection of DNA oligonucleotides with base mutations by terahertz spectroscopy and microstructures,” PLoS One 13(1), e0191515 (2018).
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X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, “Support vector machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1597–1608 (2007).
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X. X. Yin, S. Hadjiloucas, Y. C. Zhang, M. Y. Su, Y. Miao, and D. Abbott, “Pattern identification of biomedical images with time series: Contrasting THz pulse imaging with DCE-MRIs,” Artif. Intell. Med. 67, 1–23 (2016).
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K. Meng, T. Chen, T. Chen, L. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. Zhong, Z. Li, H. Feng, and J. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optical pictures of one paraffin-embedded IDC sample (a), one normal breast fibrous tissue sample (b) and one normal breast adipose tissue sample (c), HE dyeing microscope images (40×) of IDC (d), normal fibrous (e) and adipose (f) tissues, HE dyeing microscope image (100×) of IDC (g), normal fibrous (h) and adipose (i) tissues.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Flowchart of the proposed automatic recognition strategy for THz time-domain signals of breast tissue samples.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. THz time-domain amplitudes (a), and ESER results (b) for one paraffin-embedded IDC sample, one normal breast fibrous tissue sample and one normal breast adipose tissue sample.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Data dimensionality reduction results for ESER database based on PCA. Total recognition accuracy results for the Ensemble (b), kNN (c) and SVM (d) classifiers with different parameters based on increasing numbers of PCs.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. ROC curves and AUC scores for breast IDC (a), normal fibrous tissue (b) and normal adipose tissue (c) identification when Ensemble, kNN and SVM classifiers achieve the maximum accuracy.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Precision, sensitivity and specificity for breast IDC identification when Ensemble, kNN and SVM classifiers achieve the maximum accuracy.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ c j + 1 2 n ( l ) = k h ( k 2 l ) c j n ( k ) c j + 1 2 n + 1 ( l ) = k g ( k 2 l ) c j n ( k ) c 0 0 ( l ) = T ( l ) , n = 0 , 1 , 2 , 2 j , j = 1 , 2 , 3 , , J
H ( c ) = i = 1 I | p i | 2 l o g ( | p i | 2 ) , p i = | c ( i ) | 2 m = 1 I | c ( m ) | 2
E S E R ( c ) = E ( c ) H ( c )
E ( c ) = m = 1 I c 2 ( m ) l T 2 ( l )
S E S E R  =  n = 1 N E n H n