Abstract

Terahertz technology has been widely used as a nondestructive and effective detection method. Herein, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was used to detect drug-induced liver injury in mice. Firstly, the boxplots were used to detect abnormal data. Then the maximal information coefficient method was used to search for the features strongly correlated with the degree of injury. After that, the liver injury model was built using the random forests method in machine learning. The results show that this method can effectively identify the degree of liver injury and thus provide an auxiliary diagnostic method for detecting minor liver injury.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  4. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Peng, X. Yuan, X. Zou, W. Chen, H. Huang, H. Zhao, B. Song, L. Chen, and Y. Zhu, “Terahertz identification and quantification of neurotransmitter and neurotrophy mixture,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4472–4479 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Qin, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 224, 262–269 (2017).
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  7. H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
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  20. K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  26. P. Huang, Y. Cao, J. Chen, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Analysis and inspection techniques for mouse liver injury based on terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 27(18), 26014–26026 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(7), 1562–1571 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Sun, P. Du, X. Lu, P. Xie, Z. Qian, S. Fan, and Z. Zhu, “Quantitative characterization of bovine serum albuminthin-films using terahertz spectroscopy and machine learning methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 2917 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” ACM Sigmobile Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 5(1), 3–55 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. L. Breiman, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 157–176 (2011).
  33. A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (3)

2017 (1)

J. Qin, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 224, 262–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. Giles, “Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE 9747, 97470F (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, X. Yuan, X. Zou, W. Chen, H. Huang, H. Zhao, B. Song, L. Chen, and Y. Zhu, “Terahertz identification and quantification of neurotransmitter and neurotrophy mixture,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4472–4479 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Garcia-Canaveras, J. V. Castell, M. T. Donato, and A. Lahoz, “A metabolomics cell-based approach for anticipating and investigating drug-induced liver injury,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27239 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

B. W. Stewart and P. Kleihues, “World cancer report,” World Cancer Report 45, 12–351 (2014).

P. L. Ge, S. D. Du, and Y. L. Mao, “Advances in preoperative assessment of liver function,” Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. 13(4), 361–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K. M. Ahn, C. Park, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Tarver, “Cancer facts & figures 2012. American Cancer Society (ACS),” J. of Consumer Health on the Internet 16(3), 366–367 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Lee, “Recent developments in acute liver failure,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 26(1), 3–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 157–176 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” ACM Sigmobile Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 5(1), 3–55 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Breiman, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(7), 1562–1571 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. H. Anderson, L. Zeng, N. R. Rock, and E. M. Yoshida, “An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatol. Res. 18(1), 63–71 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K. M.

Alavi, K.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. Giles, “Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE 9747, 97470F (2016).
[Crossref]

Alexey, P.

Anderson, F. H.

F. H. Anderson, L. Zeng, N. R. Rock, and E. M. Yoshida, “An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatol. Res. 18(1), 63–71 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

Barar, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Benavoli, D.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bia, P.

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boggia, G.

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Breiman, L.

L. Breiman, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y. Q.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Caratelli, D.

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Castell, J. V.

J. C. Garcia-Canaveras, J. V. Castell, M. T. Donato, and A. Lahoz, “A metabolomics cell-based approach for anticipating and investigating drug-induced liver injury,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27239 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chen, W.

Chen, Y.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheon, H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, B. B.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cutler, A.

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 157–176 (2011).

Cutler, D. R.

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 157–176 (2011).

D’Ugo, S.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, K.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Donato, M. T.

J. C. Garcia-Canaveras, J. V. Castell, M. T. Donato, and A. Lahoz, “A metabolomics cell-based approach for anticipating and investigating drug-induced liver injury,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27239 (2016).
[Crossref]

Doradla, P.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. Giles, “Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE 9747, 97470F (2016).
[Crossref]

Dorney, T. D.

Du, P.

Du, S. D.

P. L. Ge, S. D. Du, and Y. L. Mao, “Advances in preoperative assessment of liver function,” Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. 13(4), 361–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eadie, L. H.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eisele, H.

R. E. Miles, X.-C. Zhang, H. Eisele, and A. Krotkus, Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects (Springer, 2007).

Fan, S.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Finucane, H. K.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukushi, Y.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Canaveras, J. C.

J. C. Garcia-Canaveras, J. V. Castell, M. T. Donato, and A. Lahoz, “A metabolomics cell-based approach for anticipating and investigating drug-induced liver injury,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27239 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gaspari, A. L.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ge, P. L.

P. L. Ge, S. D. Du, and Y. L. Mao, “Advances in preoperative assessment of liver function,” Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. 13(4), 361–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ge, W.

Giles, R. H.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. Giles, “Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE 9747, 97470F (2016).
[Crossref]

Grieco, L. A.

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grossman, S. R.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, P.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hou, D.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, P.

Huang, S. Y.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Imamura, M.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Irisawa, A.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Itsuji, T.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jain, V.

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joseph, C. S.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. Giles, “Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE 9747, 97470F (2016).
[Crossref]

Karasik, V. E.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. A.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kleihues, P.

B. W. Stewart and P. Kleihues, “World cancer report,” World Cancer Report 45, 12–351 (2014).

Kondo, N.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krotkus, A.

R. E. Miles, X.-C. Zhang, H. Eisele, and A. Krotkus, Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects (Springer, 2007).

Kubota, O.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kudrin, K. G.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lahoz, A.

J. C. Garcia-Canaveras, J. V. Castell, M. T. Donato, and A. Lahoz, “A metabolomics cell-based approach for anticipating and investigating drug-induced liver injury,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27239 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lander, E. S.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. M.

W. M. Lee, “Recent developments in acute liver failure,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 26(1), 3–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, A.

A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Mao, Y. L.

P. L. Ge, S. D. Du, and Y. L. Mao, “Advances in preoperative assessment of liver function,” Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. 13(4), 361–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mariia, B.

McVean, G.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mele, A.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mescia, L.

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mikhail, K.

Miles, R. E.

R. E. Miles, X.-C. Zhang, H. Eisele, and A. Krotkus, Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects (Springer, 2007).

Mittleman, D. M.

Mitzenmacher, M.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olga, C.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ouhci, T.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Palafox, M. A.

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

Palmieri, G.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

Park, J. Y.

Peng, Y.

Petr, D.

Piro, G.

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qian, Z.

Qin, J.

J. Qin, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 224, 262–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rastogi, V. K.

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reid, C. B.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reshef, D. N.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reshef, Y. A.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reshetov, I. V.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rock, N. R.

F. H. Anderson, L. Zeng, N. R. Rock, and E. M. Yoshida, “An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatol. Res. 18(1), 63–71 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sabesi, P. C.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” ACM Sigmobile Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 5(1), 3–55 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shiraga, K.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sileri, P.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sim, Y. C.

Singh, C.

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Sim, J. Y. Park, K. M. Ahn, C. Park, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of excised oral cancer at frozen temperature,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, B.

Song, W.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stevens, J. R.

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 157–176 (2011).

Stewart, B. W.

B. W. Stewart and P. Kleihues, “World cancer report,” World Cancer Report 45, 12–351 (2014).

Stolfi, V. M.

P. Sileri, S. D’Ugo, D. Benavoli, V. M. Stolfi, G. Palmieri, A. Mele, and A. L. Gaspari, “Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review,” South. Med. J. 102(7), 733–735 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tarver, T.

T. Tarver, “Cancer facts & figures 2012. American Cancer Society (ACS),” J. of Consumer Health on the Internet 16(3), 366–367 (2012).
[Crossref]

Turnbaugh, P. J.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. Z.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

J. Qin, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 224, 262–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, P.

Yadav, R. A.

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ying, Y.

J. Qin, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 224, 262–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, E. M.

F. H. Anderson, L. Zeng, N. R. Rock, and E. M. Yoshida, “An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatol. Res. 18(1), 63–71 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Yurchenko, S. O.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zaytsev, K. I.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

F. H. Anderson, L. Zeng, N. R. Rock, and E. M. Yoshida, “An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatol. Res. 18(1), 63–71 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, X.-C.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. E. Miles, X.-C. Zhang, H. Eisele, and A. Krotkus, Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects (Springer, 2007).

Zhang, Y. Y.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, W. W.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Zhu, Z.

Zhu, Z. J.

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

ACM Sigmobile Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” ACM Sigmobile Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 5(1), 3–55 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. (1)

W. M. Lee, “Recent developments in acute liver failure,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 26(1), 3–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Ca-Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

Expert Syst. Appl. (1)

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Syst. Appl. 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Food Chem. (2)

J. Qin, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 224, 262–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Evaluation of the hydration state of saccharides using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 140(1-2), 315–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. (1)

P. L. Ge, S. D. Du, and Y. L. Mao, “Advances in preoperative assessment of liver function,” Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Dis. Int. 13(4), 361–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hepatol. Res. (1)

F. H. Anderson, L. Zeng, N. R. Rock, and E. M. Yoshida, “An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatol. Res. 18(1), 63–71 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. of Consumer Health on the Internet (1)

T. Tarver, “Cancer facts & figures 2012. American Cancer Society (ACS),” J. of Consumer Health on the Internet 16(3), 366–367 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

V. K. Rastogi, V. Jain, R. A. Yadav, C. Singh, and M. A. Palafox, “Fourier transform raman spectrum and ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry, atomic charges and some molecular properties of the anticarcinogenic drug 5-fluorouracil,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(7), 595–603 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mach. Learn. (2)

L. Breiman, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 157–176 (2011).

Metabolomics (1)

K. Yang, F. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Z. Wang, K. Deng, Y. Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. Song, Y. Q. Cai, K. Li, B. B. Cui, and Z. J. Zhu, “Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Metabolomics 14(9), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nano Commun. Netw. (1)

G. Piro, P. Bia, G. Boggia, D. Caratelli, L. A. Grieco, and L. Mescia, “Terahertz electromagnetic field propagation in human tissues: A study on communication capabilities,” Nano Commun. Netw. 10, 51–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, and R. H. Giles, “Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE 9747, 97470F (2016).
[Crossref]

Procedia. Comp. Sci. (1)

A. Li, M. Feng, Y. Li, and Z. Liu, “Application of outlier mining in insider identification based on boxplot method,” Procedia. Comp. Sci. 91, 245–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Garcia-Canaveras, J. V. Castell, M. T. Donato, and A. Lahoz, “A metabolomics cell-based approach for anticipating and investigating drug-induced liver injury,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27239 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting novel sssociations in large data sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barar, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

South. Med. J. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the terahertz transmission time-domain system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Serum ALT and AST values of six groups after three weeks of 5-FU injection with associated error bars.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Flow chart of liver injury discrimination algorithm based on terahertz spectra.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Average terahertz time domain spectra of two liver tissues. (a) Average terahertz time domain spectra of the 1st liver tissue in 0 mg/kg group without clear abnormal data. (b) Average terahertz time domain spectra the 2nd liver tissue in the 50 mg/kg group with clear abnormal data.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Boxplots showing the abnormal spectra in each tissue in one group with the parameter $\Delta t$. (a) Boxplot result of 0 mg/kg group. (b) Boxplot result of 10 mg/kg group. (c) Boxplot result of 20 mg/kg group. (d) Boxplot result of 30 mg/kg group. (e) Boxplot result of 40 mg/kg group. (f) Boxplot result of 50 mg/kg group.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Representative absorption coefficient and refractive index spectra of the 4th tissue in 20 mg/kg group. (a) Absorption coefficient spectra of the 4th tissue in 20 mg/kg group. (b) Refractive index spectra of the 4th tissue in 20 mg/kg group. The blue lines represent the original data and the red lines represent the data with boxplot process.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Average spectra of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of six groups. (a) Average absorption coefficient spectra of each group with error bars. (b) Average refractive index spectra of each group with error bars. (c) Average absorption coefficient spectra of each group. (d) Average refractive index spectra of each group.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Prediction plots with absorption coefficient. (b) Prediction plots with refractive index.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Identification results of liver injury based on different features

Equations (6)

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Δ t = t s a m t r e f .
n ( ω ) = φ ( ω ) c ω d + 1 ,
α ( ω ) = 2 d ln { 4 n ( ω ) ρ ( ω ) [ n ( ω ) + 1 ] 2 } ,
I ( D , x , y ) = max I ( D | G ) .
M ( D ) x , y = I ( D , x , y ) log min { x , y } .
M I C ( D ) = max x y B ( n ) { M ( D ) x , y } .