Abstract

We propose a robust method for automated computation of heart rate (HR) from digital color video recordings of the human face. In order to extract photoplethysmographic signals, two orthogonal vectors of RGB color space are used. We used a dual tree complex wavelet transform based denoising algorithm to reduce artifacts (e.g. artificial lighting, movement, etc.). Most of the previous work on skin color based HR estimation performed experiments with healthy volunteers and focused to solve motion artifacts. In addition to healthy volunteers we performed experiments with child patients in pediatric intensive care units. In order to investigate the possible factors that affect the non-contact HR monitoring in a clinical environment, we studied the relation between hemoglobin levels and HR estimation errors. Low hemoglobin causes underestimation of HR. Nevertheless, we conclude that our method can provide acceptable accuracy to estimate mean HR of patients in a clinical environment, where the measurements can be performed remotely. In addition to mean heart rate estimation, we performed experiments to estimate oxygen saturation. We observed strong correlations between our SpO2 estimations and the commercial oximeter readings

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in Noncontact, Multiparameter Physiological Measurements Using a Webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. Bousefsaf, C. Maaoui, and A. Pruski, “Continuous wavelet filtering on webcam photoplethysmographic signals to remotely assess the instantaneous heart rate,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(6), 568–574 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
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  11. I. W. Selesnick, R. G. Baraniuk, and N. C. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. 22(6), 123–151 (2005).
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  15. T. M. Mahmoud, “A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology 43, 501–505 (2008).
  16. S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) 49, 172–175 (2002).
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  19. L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
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  20. C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bousefsaf, C. Maaoui, and A. Pruski, “Continuous wavelet filtering on webcam photoplethysmographic signals to remotely assess the instantaneous heart rate,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(6), 568–574 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in Noncontact, Multiparameter Physiological Measurements Using a Webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

T. M. Mahmoud, “A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology 43, 501–505 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

I. W. Selesnick, R. G. Baraniuk, and N. C. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. 22(6), 123–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) 49, 172–175 (2002).

1996 (1)

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akdemir Akar, S.

S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, J.

J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azorin-Peris, V.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Bailón, R.

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baraniuk, R. G.

I. W. Selesnick, R. G. Baraniuk, and N. C. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. 22(6), 123–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bigger, J. T.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilgiç, V.

S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bousefsaf, F.

F. Bousefsaf, C. Maaoui, and A. Pruski, “Continuous wavelet filtering on webcam photoplethysmographic signals to remotely assess the instantaneous heart rate,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(6), 568–574 (2013).
[Crossref]

Breithardt, G.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camm, A. J.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerutti, S.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chambers, J.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Chon, K. H.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clifton, D. A.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R. J.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, S.

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coumel, P.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallen, E. L.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gil, E.

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorbach, A. M.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Granquist-Fraser, D.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenwald, S.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Guazzi, A.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harness, J. B.

A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, O. M.

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Irving, G.

A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jorge, J.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalawsky, R.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamal, A. A. R.

A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kara, S.

S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karjalainen, P. A.

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) 49, 172–175 (2002).

Kennedy, H. L.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kingsbury, N.

N. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform: a new technique for shift invariance and directional filters,” (1998).

Kingsbury, N. C.

I. W. Selesnick, R. G. Baraniuk, and N. C. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. 22(6), 123–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kleiger, R. E.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laguna, P.

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latifoglu, F.

S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, F.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maaoui, C.

F. Bousefsaf, C. Maaoui, and A. Pruski, “Continuous wavelet filtering on webcam photoplethysmographic signals to remotely assess the instantaneous heart rate,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(6), 568–574 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mahmoud, T. M.

T. M. Mahmoud, “A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology 43, 501–505 (2008).

Mainardi, L.

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, M.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malliani, A.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDuff, D. J.

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in Noncontact, Multiparameter Physiological Measurements Using a Webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mearns, A. J.

A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendelson, Y.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, A. J.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orini, M.

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Picard, R. W.

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in Noncontact, Multiparameter Physiological Measurements Using a Webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poh, M. Z.

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in Noncontact, Multiparameter Physiological Measurements Using a Webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruski, A.

F. Bousefsaf, C. Maaoui, and A. Pruski, “Continuous wavelet filtering on webcam photoplethysmographic signals to remotely assess the instantaneous heart rate,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(6), 568–574 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pugh, C.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranta-aho, P. O.

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) 49, 172–175 (2002).

Rottman, J. N.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaub, M. C.

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, G.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, P. J.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, C. G.

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selesnick, I. W.

I. W. Selesnick, R. G. Baraniuk, and N. C. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. 22(6), 123–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Singer, D. H.

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Tarassenko, L.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarvainen, M. P.

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) 49, 172–175 (2002).

Togni, M.

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vergara, J. M.

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villarroel, M.

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenaweser, P.

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Biomed. Signal Process. Control (2)

F. Bousefsaf, C. Maaoui, and A. Pruski, “Continuous wavelet filtering on webcam photoplethysmographic signals to remotely assess the instantaneous heart rate,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(6), 568–574 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Akdemir Akar, S. Kara, F. Latifoğlu, and V. Bilgiç, “Spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic signals: The importance of preprocessing,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 8(1), 16–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

A. A. R. Kamal, J. B. Harness, G. Irving, and A. J. Mearns, “Skin photoplethysmography - a review,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 28(4), 257–269 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Heart J. (2)

S. Cook, M. Togni, M. C. Schaub, P. Wenaweser, and O. M. Hess, “High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor?” Eur. Heart J. 27(20), 2387–2393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Camm, M. Malik, J. T. Bigger, G. Breithardt, S. Cerutti, R. J. Cohen, P. Coumel, E. L. Fallen, H. L. Kennedy, R. E. Kleiger, F. Lombardi, A. Malliani, A. J. Moss, J. N. Rottman, G. Schmidt, P. J. Schwartz, D. H. Singer, and Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. (1)

I. W. Selesnick, R. G. Baraniuk, and N. C. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” IEEE Sig. Processing Mag. 22(6), 123–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) (1)

M. P. Tarvainen, P. O. Ranta-aho, and P. A. Karjalainen, “An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysis,” IEEE T Biomed. Eng. (N.Y.) 49, 172–175 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

M. Z. Poh, D. J. McDuff, and R. W. Picard, “Advancements in Noncontact, Multiparameter Physiological Measurements Using a Webcam,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(1), 7–11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Scully, J. Lee, J. Meyer, A. M. Gorbach, D. Granquist-Fraser, Y. Mendelson, and K. H. Chon, “Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings With a Mobile Phone,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(2), 303–306 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, R. Kalawsky, and S. Greenwald, “Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Hu, V. Azorin-Peris, S. Greenwald, J. Chambers, and Y. Zhu, “Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 077010 (2011).

Physiol. Meas. (3)

E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna, “Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions,” Physiol. Meas. 31(9), 1271–1290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Allen, “Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement,” Physiol. Meas. 28(3), R1–R39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tarassenko, M. Villarroel, A. Guazzi, J. Jorge, D. A. Clifton, and C. Pugh, “Non-contact video-based vital sign monitoring using ambient light and auto-regressive models,” Physiol. Meas. 35(5), 807–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology (1)

T. M. Mahmoud, “A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology 43, 501–505 (2008).

Other (5)

P. Sahindrakar, G. de Haan, and I. Kirenko, “Improving Motion Robustness of Contact-less Monitoring of Heart Rate Using Video Analysis,” in Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science(2011).

N. Kingsbury, “The dual-tree complex wavelet transform: a new technique for shift invariance and directional filters,” (1998).

V. Musoko, “Biomedical Signal and Image Processing,” PhD Dissertation, Computing and Control Engineering (Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, 2005).

V. Paul, Rapid Object Detection using a Boosted Cascade of Simple Features, J. Michael, ed. (2001), pp. 511–511.

M. Lewandowska, J. Ruminski, T. Kocejko, and J. Nowak, “Measuring pulse rate with a webcam; a non-contact method for evaluating cardiac activity,” in Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS), 2011 Federated Conference on(2011), pp. 405–410.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flow diagram of the proposed method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Decomposition with 1D DT-CWT to obtain approximation (A) and detail (D) coefficients at different levels. DT-CWT uses two Real DWT trees to implement its real (tree a) and imaginary (tree b) parts. L represents lowpass filters and H represents highpass filters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Face (a) and skin detection (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raw green signal (top) and processed signal (bottom). In order to improve the visibility of the variations the mean value of the raw green signal is subtracted.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The lines represent the mean and 95% limits of agreement.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Bland Altman plot for experiments with intensive care unit patients.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reference oxygen saturation vs estimated ratios.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Oxygen saturation experiments with healthy volunteers.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Oxygen saturation experiments with PICU patients.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 First level coefficients of the analysis filters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Remaining levels coefficients of the analysis filters

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of estimated HR with ECG (Healthy volunteers).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of estimated HR with ECG (PICU patients).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ 77<Cb<127 133<Cr<173
X 1 =RG X 2 =R+G2B X 1 = X 1 mean( X 1 ) X 2 = X 2 mean( X 2 ) X 2 = std( X 1 ) std( X 2 ) . X 2 HB= X 1 X 2 HB= HB std(HB)
T=1.4*(mean( D i )0.1*std( D i ))
{ | x |>Tf(x)=sgn(x)(| x |T) | x |Tf(x)=0
SpO2=AB (Iac/Idc)λred (Iac/Idc)λinfrared
Accuracy= abs(EstRef)/Ref NumofExamples RMSE= 1 m i=1 m [ Est(i)Ref(i) ] 2

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