Abstract

Vascular abnormalities serve as a key indicator for many skin diseases. Currently available methods in dermatology such as histopathology and dermatoscopy analyze underlying vasculature in human skin but are either invasive, time-consuming, and laborious or incapable of providing 3D images. In this work, we applied for the first time dual-modality photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography that provides complementary information about tissue morphology and vasculature of patients with different types of dermatitis. Its noninvasiveness and relatively short imaging time and the wide range of diseases that it can detect prove the merits of the dual-modality imaging system and show the great potential of its clinical use in the future.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Combined multi-modal photoacoustic tomography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography system with an articulated probe for in vivo human skin structure and vasculature imaging

Mengyang Liu, Zhe Chen, Behrooz Zabihian, Christoph Sinz, Edward Zhang, Paul C. Beard, Laurin Ginner, Erich Hoover, Micheal P. Minneman, Rainer A. Leitgeb, Harald Kittler, and Wolfgang Drexler
Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9) 3390-3402 (2016)

Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging

Edward Z. Zhang, Boris Povazay, Jan Laufer, Aneesh Alex, Bernd Hofer, Barbara Pedley, Carl Glittenberg, Bradley Treeby, Ben Cox, Paul Beard, and Wolfgang Drexler
Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8) 2202-2215 (2011)

In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT

Cedric Blatter, Jessika Weingast, Aneesh Alex, Branislav Grajciar, Wolfgang Wieser, Wolfgang Drexler, Robert Huber, and Rainer A. Leitgeb
Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10) 2636-2646 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. E. Laistler, R. Loewe, and E. Moser, “Magnetic resonance microimaging of human skin vasculature in vivo at 3 Tesla,” Magn. Reson. Med. 65(6), 1718–1723 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Drexler and F. G. James, Optical Coherence Tomography, Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).
  6. A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056003 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Aguirre, M. Schwarz, D. Soliman, A. Buehler, M. Omar, and V. Ntziachristos, “Broadband mesoscopic optoacoustic tomography reveals skin layers,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6297–6300 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. Held, S. Preisser, H. G. Akarçay, S. Peeters, M. Frenz, and M. Jaeger, “Effect of irradiation distance on image contrast in epi-optoacoustic imaging of human volunteers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3765–3780 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2202–2215 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Liu, B. Maurer, B. Hermann, B. Zabihian, M. G. Sandrian, A. Unterhuber, B. Baumann, E. Z. Zhang, P. C. Beard, W. J. Weninger, and W. Drexler, “Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3150–3159 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. B. Hermann, M. Liu, N. Schmitner, B. Maurer, D. Meyer, W. J. Weninger, and W. Drexler, “Hybrid ultrahigh resolution optical coherence / photoacoustic microscopy,” in Proceeding of SPIE 9323, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015, A. Oraevsky, L. Wang, eds. (SPIE, 2015), 9323N.
  23. “American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers,” American National Standards Institute ANSI Z136.1 (2007).
  24. B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. McKee, Pathology of the Skin with Clinical Correlations (Mosby-Wolfe 1996).
  27. S. Standring, Gray’s Anatomy, The Anatomical Basics of Clinical Practice (Elsevier, 2005) Chap. 1.
  28. I. M. Braverman, “The cutaneous microcirculation,” J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5(1), 3–9 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. H. Gray, Anatomy of the Human Body (Bartleby, 2000).
  30. E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2202–2215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Laistler, R. Loewe, and E. Moser, “Magnetic resonance microimaging of human skin vasculature in vivo at 3 Tesla,” Magn. Reson. Med. 65(6), 1718–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

I. M. Braverman, “The cutaneous microcirculation,” J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5(1), 3–9 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguirre, J.

Akarçay, H. G.

Alex, A.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2202–2215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beard, P.

Beard, P. C.

Binder, M.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binder, S.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braverman, I. M.

I. M. Braverman, “The cutaneous microcirculation,” J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5(1), 3–9 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. B.

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buehler, A.

Campbell, R. B.

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleary, J.

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornelius, L. A.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, B.

Cox, B. T.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, B. Maurer, B. Hermann, B. Zabihian, M. G. Sandrian, A. Unterhuber, B. Baumann, E. Z. Zhang, P. C. Beard, W. J. Weninger, and W. Drexler, “Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3150–3159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2202–2215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favazza, C. P.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frenz, M.

G. Held, S. Preisser, H. G. Akarçay, S. Peeters, M. Frenz, and M. Jaeger, “Effect of irradiation distance on image contrast in epi-optoacoustic imaging of human volunteers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3765–3780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frise, E.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gareau, D.

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glittenberg, C.

Grajciar, B.

Hartenstein, V.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Held, G.

Hermann, B.

Hofer, B.

Huber, R.

Jaeger, M.

G. Held, S. Preisser, H. G. Akarçay, S. Peeters, M. Frenz, and M. Jaeger, “Effect of irradiation distance on image contrast in epi-optoacoustic imaging of human volunteers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3765–3780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jassim, O.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, W.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaynig, V.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kellner-Höfer, M.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kittler, H.

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, K.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laistler, E.

E. Laistler, R. Loewe, and E. Moser, “Magnetic resonance microimaging of human skin vasculature in vivo at 3 Tesla,” Magn. Reson. Med. 65(6), 1718–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laufer, J.

Leitgeb, R. A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemor, R.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M. L.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Loewe, R.

E. Laistler, R. Loewe, and E. Moser, “Magnetic resonance microimaging of human skin vasculature in vivo at 3 Tesla,” Magn. Reson. Med. 65(6), 1718–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Longair, M.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lythgoe, M.

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, B.

Moser, E.

E. Laistler, R. Loewe, and E. Moser, “Magnetic resonance microimaging of human skin vasculature in vivo at 3 Tesla,” Magn. Reson. Med. 65(6), 1718–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemecek, R.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niederhauser, J. J.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, F.

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Oh, J. T.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omar, M.

Pedley, B.

Peeters, S.

Pehamberger, H.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pietzsch, T.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, S.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

Považay, B.

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Preibisch, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Preisser, S.

Qin, J.

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rueden, C.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saalfeld, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandrian, M. G.

Scambler, P.

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schindelin, J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, B.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, M.

Soliman, D.

Stoica, G.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tinevez, J.-Y.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomancak, P.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treeby, B.

Treeby, B. E.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuzuki, Y.

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, P.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weingast, J.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinigel, M.

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weninger, W. J.

White, D. J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wolff, K.

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zabihian, B.

Zhang, E.

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, H. F.

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Oh, M. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034032 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, “k-Wave: MATLAB toolbox for the simulation and reconstruction of photoacoustic wave fields,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, H. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography microangiography for monitoring the response of vascular perfusion to external pressure on human skin tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 056003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Favazza, O. Jassim, L. A. Cornelius, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic microscopy of human cutaneous microvasculature and a nevus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, F. Norris, J. Cleary, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Johnson, P. Scambler, M. Lythgoe, and P. Beard, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, B. Považay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, “Multispectral in vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

A. Alex, J. Weingast, M. Weinigel, M. Kellner-Höfer, R. Nemecek, M. Binder, H. Pehamberger, K. König, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional multiphoton/optical coherence tomography for diagnostic applications in dermatology,” J. Biophotonics 6(4), 352–362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. (1)

I. M. Braverman, “The cutaneous microcirculation,” J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 5(1), 3–9 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

H. Kittler, H. Pehamberger, K. Wolff, and M. Binder, “Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy,” Lancet Oncol. 3(3), 159–165 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qin, J. Jiang, L. An, D. Gareau, and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of microcirculation within human skin under psoriatic conditions using optical microangiography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 122–129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

E. Laistler, R. Loewe, and E. Moser, “Magnetic resonance microimaging of human skin vasculature in vivo at 3 Tesla,” Magn. Reson. Med. 65(6), 1718–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

E. B. Brown, R. B. Campbell, Y. Tsuzuki, L. Xu, P. Carmeliet, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(7), 864–868 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (6)

H. Gray, Anatomy of the Human Body (Bartleby, 2000).

S. Standring, Gray’s Anatomy, The Anatomical Basics of Clinical Practice (Elsevier, 2005) Chap. 1.

W. Drexler and F. G. James, Optical Coherence Tomography, Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).

B. Hermann, M. Liu, N. Schmitner, B. Maurer, D. Meyer, W. J. Weninger, and W. Drexler, “Hybrid ultrahigh resolution optical coherence / photoacoustic microscopy,” in Proceeding of SPIE 9323, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015, A. Oraevsky, L. Wang, eds. (SPIE, 2015), 9323N.

“American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers,” American National Standards Institute ANSI Z136.1 (2007).

P. McKee, Pathology of the Skin with Clinical Correlations (Mosby-Wolfe 1996).

Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (6832 KB)      3D-rendered volume of the PAT data showing the vasculature of a healthy subject
» Visualization 2: MOV (11322 KB)      3D-rendered video of the fused PAT/OCT data from a healthy subject. The OCT data is presented with the gold colormap and the PAT data with the red colormap. The virtual cutout shows the capillary loop system in the papillary dermis.
» Visualization 3: MOV (2227 KB)      3D-rendered video of the PAT data of a patient with chronic hyperkeratotic hand eczema
» Visualization 4: MOV (11632 KB)      3D-rendered video of fused PAT/OCT data of a patient with chronic hyperkeratotic hand eczema with a virtual cutout depicting the surface of the epidermis, a part of the capillary loop system, and the papillary dermis. The OCT data is presented with t
» Visualization 5: MOV (10783 KB)      3D-rendered video of fused PAT/OCT data of a patient with Dyshidrotic hand eczema. A virtual cut out runs along the deoth direction, revealing the morphoogy of scar tissue and the interface to the healthy tissue, as well as the vasculature. The OCT

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the multimodal setup, L: scan lens, M: mirror, FM: flip mirror, FPI: Fabry−Pérot interferometer sensor head. (b) Photograph of a palm, the imaged area is indicated by a blue square. (c) Photograph of imaging head. (d) Imaging head with the subject’s hand placed on the FPI and the excitation light incident on the palm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Single frame from the 3D-rendered volume of the PAT data showing the vasculature of a healthy subject (video available at Visualization 1). scale bars: 1 mm (b) Diagram of skin layers and vascular network (adapted from [26]) and MIP images calculated from the four depth ranges from the volume in (a) showing the vasculature in the papillary dermis (red frame), superficial vascular plexus (green frame), deep vascular plexus (blue frame), and subcutaneous vessels (yellow frame). Because of the resolution limitation of the system, the individual vessels of the capillary loop system and the superficial vascular plexus (diameter ranging from 4 µm to 35 µm) are not discerned. Few vessels seen mostly in the top-right portion of the green frame are the interconnecting vessels.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Single frame from the 3D-rendered video of the fused PAT/OCT data from a healthy subject (video available at Visualization 2). The OCT data is presented with the gold colormap and the PAT data with the red colormap. The virtual cutout shows the capillary loop system in the papillary dermis. The PAT data is the same as in Fig. 2. The x- and y-axis scale bars: 1 mm; z-axis scale bar: 200 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 MIP PAT images of three healthy subjects (columns). The rows from top to bottom represent the vascular distribution in the dermal papillae, mid- and deep dermis, and subcutaneous fat layer, respectively. Images in each column are of one subject. The vessels in the dermal papillae are organized into the capillary loop system and are visualized as parallel curves. In the middle row, the vessels are grouped according to size, with the smaller vessels having an average diameter of 200 µm and the larger vessels having an average diameter of 890 µm. The smaller vessels are mainly the interconnecting vessels. The average diameter of the subcutaneous vessels is 340 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) MIP PAT image of the capillary loop system of a patient with chronic hyperkeratotic hand eczema. (b) Color-coded MIP of PAT data. Notice the high degree of vascularization in the depth range of 1.5−2.40 mm. (c) Single frame from a 3D-rendered video of the PAT data (video available at Visualization 3). (d) Single frame from the 3D-rendered fused PAT/OCT data (video available at Visualization 4). In (d), x- and y-axis scale bars: 1 mm; z-axis scale bar: 200 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of PAT and OCT images of a healthy subject (left column) and a diseased patient (right column) with chronic hyperkeratotic hand eczema. (a) and (b) MIP PAT integrating the depth range between 1.5 and 2.5 mm. This depth range includes the deeper vessels of the deep vascular plexus in the lower reticular dermis as well as few vessels arising from the superficial layer of the subcutaneous fat. Note the hypervascularization in the diseased subject. (c) and (d) OCT cross-sectional images show that the epidermis is thicker in the diseased patient than in the healthy subject. In (c) and (d), vertical scale bars: 100 µm; horizontal scale bars: 1 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of PAT images of a healthy subject (left column) and a patient with chronic hand eczema under treatment (right column). (a) and (b): MIP PAT integrating the depth range between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. For the healthy subject, the smaller vessels in the shallower part of the deep vascular plexus are seen. (c) and (d) Integrating the depth range between 1.2 and 3.0 mm show the larger vessels in the deeper part of the deep vascular plexus and the part of the vessels arising from the subcutaneous fat layer. Because of the antiproliferative and vasoconstrictive effects of the topical steroid used by the diseased patient, the vascular network is sparse.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 En face MIPs from a patient suffering from dyshidrotic hand eczema taken at selected depths: (a) 0.13−0.28 mm, covering the papillary dermis depth range. The curves of the capillary loop system are visible on the bottom right-hand side but are gone on the left-hand side. (b) 0.5−1.0 mm, covering the smaller vessels in the deep vascular plexus; (c) 1.0−1.5 mm, covering the larger vessels in the deep vascular plexus; (d) 2.78−4.31 mm, covering the vessels in the subcutaneous fat tissue.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Images from a patient with dyshidrotic hand eczema. (a) En face OCT images at a depth of 150 µm. The texture of the scar tissue on the left side of the image is distinctly different from the healthy tissue on the right. Ridges of the papillary dermis and the sweat ducts (bright spots) are visible. (b) En face OCT images at a depth of 520 μm. The border between the scar tissue and the healthy tissue is noticeable at this depth. (c) MIP PAT integrating the depth range 500−630 μm. (d) PAT images overlaid on OCT images. Notice the thinning of the vessels at the interface between the scar tissue and the heathy tissue (black arrows). The 3D-rendered video of the fused PAT/OCT data is available at Visualization 5.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) En face OCT image in which dashed lines 1 and 2 correspond to the cross-sectional images in (b) and (c), respectively. The cross section line 1 in (a) includes scar tissue and a portion of healthy tissue. On the cross-sectional image in (b), the thickness of the epidermis in the scar portion is significantly reduced and the morphology of the skin layers is altered. (c) The cross-sectional image of healthy tissue. The dermis−epidermis junction, sweat ducts, and the overall thickness of the epidermis, which is constant along the x axis, can be seen. x-axis scale bar: 1 mm; z-axis scale bar: 100 µm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 MIP PAT images of atopic dermatitis. (a) Integration of the depth range of 0.21−0.30 mm shows the capillary loop system in the papillary dermis; (b) the smaller vessels in the deep vascular plexus; (c) the larger vessels in the deep vascular plexus and part of the vessels arising from the subcutaneous tissue; (d) the subcutaneous vessels. Possible microaneurysms are detected in (c). The enlarged views are given in Fig. 12.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 MIP PAT images of atopic dermatitis. (a) Color-coded depth information. The colorbar on the right shows the depth in millimeters for each color tone. (b) and (c) Enlarged view of two possible aneurysms.

Metrics