Abstract

Surgical treatment of brain cancer is limited by the inability of current imaging capabilities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect the entirety of this locally invasive cancer. This results in residual cancer cells remaining following surgery, leading to recurrence and death. We demonstrate that intraoperative Raman spectroscopy can detect invasive cancer cells centimeters beyond pathological T1-contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted MRI signals. This intraoperative optical guide can be used to detect invasive cancer cells and minimize post-surgical cancer burden. The detection of distant invasive cancer cells beyond MRI signal has the potential to increase the effectiveness of surgery and directly lengthen patient survival.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  23. N. Sanai and M. S. Berger, “Glioma extent of resection and its impact on patient outcome,” Neurosurgery 62, 753–764 (2008).
  24. I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

2013 (3)

K. Petrecca, M.-C. Guiot, V. Panet-Raymond, and L. Souhami, “Failure pattern following complete resection plus radiotherapy and temozolomide is at the resection margin in patients with glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 111(1), 19–23 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Goodenberger and R. B. Jenkins, “Genetics of adult glioma,” Cancer Genet. 205(12), 613–621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

N. Sanai and M. S. Berger, “Glioma extent of resection and its impact on patient outcome,” Neurosurgery 62, 753–764 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. H. Friedman, “Stochastic gradient boosting,” Comput. Stat. Data Anal. 38(4), 367–378 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

G. E. Keles, K. R. Lamborn, and M. S. Berger, “Low-grade hemispheric gliomas in adults: a critical review of extent of resection as a factor influencing outcome,” J. Neurosurg. 95(5), 735–745 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

2000 (3)

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

1997 (1)

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. S. Berger, A. V. Deliganis, J. Dobbins, and G. E. Keles, “The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas,” Cancer 74(6), 1784–1791 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abi-Said, D.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albert, F. K.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attenello, F. J.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Baron, M. H.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barwise, J. A.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

Bauchet, L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, A. M.

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, M. S.

N. Sanai and M. S. Berger, “Glioma extent of resection and its impact on patient outcome,” Neurosurgery 62, 753–764 (2008).

G. E. Keles, K. R. Lamborn, and M. S. Berger, “Low-grade hemispheric gliomas in adults: a critical review of extent of resection as a factor influencing outcome,” J. Neurosurg. 95(5), 735–745 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Berger, A. V. Deliganis, J. Dobbins, and G. E. Keles, “The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas,” Cancer 74(6), 1784–1791 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, L.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Bhagwat, J. G.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bise, K.

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Black, P. M.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Böhringer, H. J.

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boller, D.

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonsanto, M. M.

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandes, A. A.

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brekken, R.

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brem, H.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Burger, P. C.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Capelle, L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaichana, K. L.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Colin, P.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coons, S. W.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dabbous, O. H.

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deliganis, A. V.

M. S. Berger, A. V. Deliganis, J. Dobbins, and G. E. Keles, “The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas,” Cancer 74(6), 1784–1791 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeMonte, F.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desroches, J.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Dickhaus, H.

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobbins, J.

M. S. Berger, A. V. Deliganis, J. Dobbins, and G. E. Keles, “The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas,” Cancer 74(6), 1784–1791 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duffau, H.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eames, M. E.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eschbacher, J. M.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ewelt, C.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felsberg, J.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrant, M.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Fitzpatrick, J. M.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

Floeth, F. W.

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontaine, D.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fourney, D. R.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschi, E.

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frenay, M.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, J. H.

J. H. Friedman, “Stochastic gradient boosting,” Comput. Stat. Data Anal. 38(4), 367–378 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ganser, K. A.

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gatta, G.

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gering, D. T.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Ghadyani, H.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giese, A.

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilsbach, J. M.

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetz, C.

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gokaslan, Z. L.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golmard, J. L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodenberger, M. L.

M. L. Goodenberger and R. B. Jenkins, “Genetics of adult glioma,” Cancer Genet. 205(12), 613–621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillevin, R.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guiot, M.-C.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

K. Petrecca, M.-C. Guiot, V. Panet-Raymond, and L. Souhami, “Failure pattern following complete resection plus radiotherapy and temozolomide is at the resection margin in patients with glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 111(1), 19–23 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guyotat, J.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hassenbusch, S. J.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hata, N.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Helmke, K.

J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernes, T. A. N.

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, K.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuer, C.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, D. L.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

Holland, E.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honea, N. J.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hütter, B.-O.

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakobs, O.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenkins, R. B.

M. L. Goodenberger and R. B. Jenkins, “Genetics of adult glioma,” Cancer Genet. 205(12), 613–621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jermyn, M.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jolesz, F. A.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Kasper, R. S.

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keles, G. E.

G. E. Keles, K. R. Lamborn, and M. S. Berger, “Low-grade hemispheric gliomas in adults: a critical review of extent of resection as a factor influencing outcome,” J. Neurosurg. 95(5), 735–745 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Berger, A. V. Deliganis, J. Dobbins, and G. E. Keles, “The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas,” Cancer 74(6), 1784–1791 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikinis, R.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Knauth, M.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knopp, U.

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krings, T.

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kujas, M.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kunze, S.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacroix, M.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamborn, K. R.

G. E. Keles, K. R. Lamborn, and M. S. Berger, “Low-grade hemispheric gliomas in adults: a critical review of extent of resection as a factor influencing outcome,” J. Neurosurg. 95(5), 735–745 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, F. F.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langen, K.-J.

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lankenau, E.

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leblond, F.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Leppert, J.

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litofsky, N. S.

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lohmann, F.

J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

Lydersen, S.

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maciunas, R. J.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

Mandonnet, E.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martus, P.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mastanduno, M. A.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, C. R.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

McCutcheon, I. E.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGirt, M. J.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

McLean, D. I.

Mehta, V.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Meinel, T.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercier, J.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Michael, C.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mok, K.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Nabavi, A.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Nguyen, H.-H.

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, A.

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohno-Machado, L.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivi, A.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Pallud, J.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panet-Raymond, V.

K. Petrecca, M.-C. Guiot, V. Panet-Raymond, and L. Souhami, “Failure pattern following complete resection plus radiotherapy and temozolomide is at the resection margin in patients with glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 111(1), 19–23 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pergolizzi, R. S.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Peruzzi, P.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrecca, K.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

K. Petrecca, M.-C. Guiot, V. Panet-Raymond, and L. Souhami, “Failure pattern following complete resection plus radiotherapy and temozolomide is at the resection margin in patients with glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 111(1), 19–23 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pichette, J.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Pinelli, C.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pittet, M. J.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinoñes-Hinojosa, A.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Regelsberger, J.

J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reifenberger, G.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinges, M. H. T.

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reni, M.

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reulen, H. J.

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reusche, E.

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigau, V.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohde, V.

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabel, M.

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saint-Arnaud, K.

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Sanai, N.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sanai and M. S. Berger, “Glioma extent of resection and its impact on patient outcome,” Neurosurgery 62, 753–764 (2008).

Sawaya, R.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwaderer, M.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, R. B.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Selbekk, T.

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, K. A.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snyder, L. A.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solheim, O.

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Souhami, L.

K. Petrecca, M.-C. Guiot, V. Panet-Raymond, and L. Souhami, “Failure pattern following complete resection plus radiotherapy and temozolomide is at the resection margin in patients with glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 111(1), 19–23 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spetzler, R. F.

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staubert, A.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steiger, H. J.

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stellmacher, F.

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoffels, G.

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stummer, W.

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, C. M.

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taillandier, L.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taillibert, S.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talos, I.-F.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Than, K.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Tosoni, A.

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tronnier, V. M.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, W.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unsgaard, G.

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandenbos, F.

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vecht, C.

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M. Y.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

Warfield, S. K.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Weingart, J. D.

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, W. M.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Westin, C. F.

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

Westphal, M.

J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirtz, C. R.

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhao, J.

Zou, K. H.

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Neurochir. (Wien) (2)

H. J. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 151(5), 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. T. Reinges, H.-H. Nguyen, T. Krings, B.-O. Hütter, V. Rohde, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 146(4), 369–377 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) (1)

K. A. Ganser, H. Dickhaus, A. Staubert, M. M. Bonsanto, C. R. Wirtz, V. M. Tronnier, and S. Kunze, “Quantification of brain shift effects in MRI images,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(s2), 247–248 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. S. Berger, A. V. Deliganis, J. Dobbins, and G. E. Keles, “The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas,” Cancer 74(6), 1784–1791 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Genet. (1)

M. L. Goodenberger and R. B. Jenkins, “Genetics of adult glioma,” Cancer Genet. 205(12), 613–621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. (1)

C. Ewelt, F. W. Floeth, J. Felsberg, H. J. Steiger, M. Sabel, K.-J. Langen, G. Stoffels, and W. Stummer, “Finding the anaplastic focus in diffuse gliomas: the value of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, FET-PET, and intraoperative, ALA-derived tissue fluorescence,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 113(7), 541–547 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. (1)

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Stat. Data Anal. (1)

J. H. Friedman, “Stochastic gradient boosting,” Comput. Stat. Data Anal. 38(4), 367–378 (2002).
[Crossref]

Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (1)

A. A. Brandes, A. Tosoni, E. Franceschi, M. Reni, G. Gatta, and C. Vecht, “Glioblastoma in adults,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 67(2), 139–152 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Ultrasound (1)

J. Regelsberger, F. Lohmann, K. Helmke, and M. Westphal, “Ultrasound-guided surgery of deep seated brain lesions,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(2), 115–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurooncol. (2)

K. Petrecca, M.-C. Guiot, V. Panet-Raymond, and L. Souhami, “Failure pattern following complete resection plus radiotherapy and temozolomide is at the resection margin in patients with glioblastoma,” J. Neurooncol. 111(1), 19–23 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, T. Meinel, C. Ewelt, P. Martus, O. Jakobs, J. Felsberg, and G. Reifenberger, “Prospective cohort study of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients with no or minimal residual enhancing tumor load after surgery,” J. Neurooncol. 108(1), 89–97 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (5)

N. Sanai, L. A. Snyder, N. J. Honea, S. W. Coons, J. M. Eschbacher, K. A. Smith, and R. F. Spetzler, “Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas,” J. Neurosurg. 115(4), 740–748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, C. Goetz, K. Bise, and H. J. Reulen, “Fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma multiforme by using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins: a prospective study in 52 consecutive patients,” J. Neurosurg. 93(6), 1003–1013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Capelle, D. Fontaine, E. Mandonnet, L. Taillandier, J. L. Golmard, L. Bauchet, J. Pallud, P. Peruzzi, M. H. Baron, M. Kujas, J. Guyotat, R. Guillevin, M. Frenay, S. Taillibert, P. Colin, V. Rigau, F. Vandenbos, C. Pinelli, H. Duffau, and French Réseau d’Étude des Gliomes, “Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization Grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases: clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 118(6), 1157–1168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Keles, K. R. Lamborn, and M. S. Berger, “Low-grade hemispheric gliomas in adults: a critical review of extent of resection as a factor influencing outcome,” J. Neurosurg. 95(5), 735–745 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lacroix, D. Abi-Said, D. R. Fourney, Z. L. Gokaslan, W. Shi, F. DeMonte, F. F. Lang, I. E. McCutcheon, S. J. Hassenbusch, E. Holland, K. Hess, C. Michael, D. Miller, and R. Sawaya, “A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival,” J. Neurosurg. 95(2), 190–198 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

H. J. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurol. Res. (1)

C. R. Wirtz, F. K. Albert, M. Schwaderer, C. Heuer, A. Staubert, V. M. Tronnier, M. Knauth, and S. Kunze, “The benefit of neuronavigation for neurosurgery analyzed by its impact on glioblastoma surgery,” Neurol. Res. 22(4), 354–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurosurg. Focus (1)

N. S. Litofsky, A. M. Bauer, R. S. Kasper, C. M. Sullivan, O. H. Dabbous, and Glioma Outcomes Project Investigators, “Image-guided resection of high-grade glioma: patient selection factors and outcome,” Neurosurg. Focus 20(4), E16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurosurgery (4)

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, “Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy,” Neurosurgery 43, 514–528 (1998).

A. Nabavi, P. M. Black, D. T. Gering, C. F. Westin, V. Mehta, R. S. Pergolizzi, M. Ferrant, S. K. Warfield, N. Hata, R. B. Schwartz, W. M. Wells, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, “Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift,” Neurosurgery 48, 787–798 (2001).

M. J. McGirt, K. L. Chaichana, F. J. Attenello, J. D. Weingart, K. Than, P. C. Burger, A. Olivi, H. Brem, and A. Quinoñes-Hinojosa, “Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas,” Neurosurgery 63, 700–708 (2008).

N. Sanai and M. S. Berger, “Glioma extent of resection and its impact on patient outcome,” Neurosurgery 62, 753–764 (2008).

Radiology (1)

I.-F. Talos, K. H. Zou, L. Ohno-Machado, J. G. Bhagwat, R. Kikinis, P. M. Black, and F. A. Jolesz, “Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics,” Radiology 239(2), 506–513 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Transl. Med. (1)

M. Jermyn, K. Mok, J. Mercier, J. Desroches, J. Pichette, K. Saint-Arnaud, L. Bernstein, M.-C. Guiot, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Intraoperative brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in humans,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 274–279 (2015).

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

T. Selbekk, R. Brekken, O. Solheim, S. Lydersen, T. A. N. Hernes, and G. Unsgaard, “Tissue Motion and Strain in the Human Brain Assessed by Intraoperative Ultrasound in Glioma Patients,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36(1), 2–10 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup diagram with the hand-held fiber optic Raman probe connected to a 785 nm NIR laser and high-resolution CCD spectroscopic detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Images of neuropathology slides from tumor samples for 6 patients mutated for IDHR132H, corresponding to: (a) Anaplastic Astrocytoma (WHO grade 3); (b) Recurrent Oligodendroglioma (WHO grade 2); (c) Recurrent Astrocytoma (WHO grade 2); (d) Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma (WHO grade 3); (e) Anaplastic Astrocytoma (WHO grade 3); (f) Glioblastoma (WHO grade 4).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 This example shows the segmentation of a glioblastoma on T1-contrast enhanced (a) and T2-weighted (b) MRI. After cropping the MRI volume to the tumor area, semi-automated segmentation algorithms use grayscale values and structure to identify MR-enhancing areas corresponding to tumor. The final step (far right) shows the resulting tumor segmentation in red.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Three-dimensional distances of invasive cancer samples (13 patients, n = 60 tissue samples) from the closest edge of visible tumor contrast on preoperative T1-contrast enhanced (top) and T2-weighted (bottom) MRI. The location of the invasive cancer samples was determined on preoperative MRI based on the StealthStation tracking system used during surgery. ‘Detected’ versus ‘Not Detected’ indicates which samples the classification algorithm was able to correctly identify as invasive cancer based on RS (true positive), and those which where misclassified (false negative), respectively. Note that the vertical axis is used only to provide separation of the data points to make the points with similar values on the horizontal axis more visible. (b) MRI images (from different patients) showing four sample RS measurement locations indicated by the red cross-hair: one coronal T1-contrast enhanced image for a patient with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (left), followed by three axial T2-weighted images, corresponding to patients with grade 4 glioblastoma, grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma, and grade 4 glioblastoma, respectively. For each, the three-dimensional distance of the measurement location from T1-contrast enhanced or T2-weighted MRI contrast respectively is indicated.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) 3-Dimensional volume rendering from the preoperative MRI of a patient with a grade 4 glioblastoma. The tumor regions visible on T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans are indicated in red and blue respectively. White ‘plus’ symbols indicate measurement locations of invasive cancer detected with RS. (b) A T1-weighted MR axial image with the glioblastoma visible. (c) The same image as in b, with the segmentation of the tumor region visible in red. (d) A T2-weighted MR axial image with the glioblastoma visible, corresponding to the same cross section as in b and c. (e) The same image as in d, with the segmentation of the tumor region visible in blue.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Histopathology images for 4 tissue samples are shown: Three invasive grade 4 glioblastoma samples and one normal brain sample from a patient with a grade 2 astrocytoma, corresponding to locations where RS were made. (b) Raman spectra of the measurement locations in a, with visible spectral differences.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Patient pathology and sample size information: A total of 60 invasive cancer samples were used, with a further 45 measurements of normal brain.

Metrics