Abstract

We designed and fabricated a novel terahertz (THz) otoscope to help physicians to diagnose otitis media (OM) with both THz diagnostics and conventional optical diagnostics. We verified the potential of this tool for diagnosing OM using mouse skin tissue and a human tympanic membrane samples prior to clinical application.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
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2015 (2)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

F. R. Lin, J. K. Niparko, and L. Ferrucci, “Hearing Loss Prevalence in the United States,” Arch. Intern. Med. 171(20), 1851–1852 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, J. Choi, I. Maeng, J. Y. Park, K. Lee, Y.-M. Huh, J.-S. Suh, S. Haam, and J.-H. Son, “Molecular imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4009–4016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2006 (2)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dobroiu, M. Yamashita, Y. N. Ohshima, Y. Morita, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz imaging system based on a backward-wave oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 43(30), 5637–5646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albuminand collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Palmu, H. Puhakka, T. Rahko, and A. K. Takala, “Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 49(3), 207–213 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

Bastian, G.

Beck, M.

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blackwood, R. A.

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, H. L.

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

Choi, Y.

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooke, J. M.

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dazert, S.

A. Minovi and S. Dazert, “Diseases of the middle ear in childhood,” GMS Curr. Top. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 13, Doc11 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

Dobroiu, A.

Faist, J.

Färber, S.

H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrucci, L.

F. R. Lin, J. K. Niparko, and L. Ferrucci, “Hearing Loss Prevalence in the United States,” Arch. Intern. Med. 171(20), 1851–1852 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

Fischer, M.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flanagan, N.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foth, H.

H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauer, A.

H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gebs, R.

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Harmes, K. M.

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Harrison, R. V.

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albuminand collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

Hilser, F.

Hoffmann, M.

Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y. M.

Huh, Y.-M.

Huska, K.

Jeon, T.-I.

Jeong, K.

Jepsen, P.

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, M. B.

Jung, W.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. G.

Kawase, K.

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenna, M. A.

M. A. Kenna, “Acquired Hearing Loss in Children,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 48(6), 933–953 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

Klatt, G.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

Koch, M.

Lee, E. S.

Lee, G. M.

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Lee, S. K.

Lemmer, U.

Lin, F. R.

F. R. Lin, J. K. Niparko, and L. Ferrucci, “Hearing Loss Prevalence in the United States,” Arch. Intern. Med. 171(20), 1851–1852 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeng, I.

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albuminand collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Minovi, A.

A. Minovi and S. Dazert, “Diseases of the middle ear in childhood,” GMS Curr. Top. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 13, Doc11 (2014).
[PubMed]

Morita, Y.

Nguyen, C. T.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niparko, J. K.

F. R. Lin, J. K. Niparko, and L. Ferrucci, “Hearing Loss Prevalence in the United States,” Arch. Intern. Med. 171(20), 1851–1852 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

Novak, M.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Ohshima, Y. N.

Otani, C.

Palmu, A.

A. Palmu, H. Puhakka, T. Rahko, and A. K. Takala, “Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 49(3), 207–213 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C. H.

Park, D. W.

Park, J. Y.

Park, Y.

Passamani, P. P.

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Pepper, M.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Pinder, S. E.

Provenzano, E.

Puhakka, H.

A. Palmu, H. Puhakka, T. Rahko, and A. K. Takala, “Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 49(3), 207–213 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, W.

Rahko, T.

A. Palmu, H. Puhakka, T. Rahko, and A. K. Takala, “Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 49(3), 207–213 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albuminand collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rutz, F.

Shankar, S.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J. H.

Son, J.-H.

Stewart, C. N.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J. S.

Suh, J.-S.

Takala, A. K.

A. Palmu, H. Puhakka, T. Rahko, and A. K. Takala, “Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 49(3), 207–213 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, R.

H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilk, R.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, M.

Yang, J.

Am. Fam. Physician (1)

K. M. Harmes, R. A. Blackwood, H. L. Burrows, J. M. Cooke, R. V. Harrison, and P. P. Passamani, “Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment,” Am. Fam. Physician 88(7), 435–440 (2013).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Intern. Med. (1)

F. R. Lin, J. K. Niparko, and L. Ferrucci, “Hearing Loss Prevalence in the United States,” Arch. Intern. Med. 171(20), 1851–1852 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albuminand collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

GMS Curr. Top. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

A. Minovi and S. Dazert, “Diseases of the middle ear in childhood,” GMS Curr. Top. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 13, Doc11 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hear. Res. (1)

H. Foth, S. Färber, A. Gauer, and R. Wagner, “Thermal damage threshold at 633 nm of tympanic membrane of pig,” Hear. Res. 142(1-2), 71–78 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (1)

A. Palmu, H. Puhakka, T. Rahko, and A. K. Takala, “Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 49(3), 207–213 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. (1)

M. A. Kenna, “Acquired Hearing Loss in Children,” Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 48(6), 933–953 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Mattox, Microsurgery of the Skull Base (Georg Thieme Verlag, 1988), Part. 5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the THz otoscope. This integrated device comprised a commercial optical otoscope and fiber-coupled THz module. The inset is a photograph of the fabricated THz otoscope.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Propagation profile of THz wave optical paths depending on the Tx silicon lens height. The simulation was performed using the Zemax optical-design program.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Alteration of THz pulses with different ear specula. The L and phi dimensions of these specula are as follows: #1) 2.9 cm, 5 mm; #2) 3.3 cm, 3 mm; #3) 2.9 cm, 4 mm; and #4) 4.1 cm, 2.3 mm. (a) Time-domain signals and (b) their spectra. The maximum THz signal (thick blue line) was obtained with ear speculum #1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental and simulated results with thin dielectric film illustrating the cause of pulse-shape changes. (a) Photograph of the experimental setup. (b) Experimental time-domain signals for three samples. (c) Simulation scheme. (d)–(e) Simulation results when 74- and 300-μm-thick films were used, respectively. The large pulse at 5 ps is the incident THz pulse.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mouse skin experiment results. (a) Photographs of the experimental setup. (b) THz time-domain signals before and after water dropping. (c) The THz signal changes depending on the moisture level while supplying 3-cc water vapor/min. (d) Peak-to-peak amplitude versus moisture (shown over time).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experiment results with human tympanic membrane using the THz otoscope. (a) Alteration of reflected THz pulses over 90 min. (b) Several THz pulses over different time. The inset shows photographs of the experiment setup and 10- and 30-μl water drops. As in the mouse skin experiments, the THz pulse was decreased in the presence of water drops. When the membrane was geometrically distorted due to heavy moisture, the THz pulse almost disappeared due to the deformed (not flat) reflection interface. We show several THz pulses at specific times. The pulses in the dashed box in (b) are not reflection THz pulses from samples; rather, they are reflection THz pulses from internal structure within a prototype version of the otoscope.

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