Abstract

We report a method on quantitative and simultaneous non-contact in-vivo hydration and sebum measurements of the skin using an infrared optical spectroscopic set-up. The method utilizes differential detection with three wavelengths 1720, 1750, and 1770 nm, corresponding to the lipid vibrational bands that lay “in between” the prominent water absorption bands. We have used an emulsifier containing hydro- and lipophilic components to mix water and sebum in various volume fractions which was applied to the skin to mimic different oily-dry skin conditions. We also measured the skin sebum and hydration values on the forehead under natural conditions and its variations to external stimuli. Good agreement was found between our experimental results and reference values measured using conventional biophysical methods such as Corneometer and Sebumeter.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

K. Maruo and Yu. Yamada, “Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047003 (2015).

2014 (1)

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2010 (3)

F. A. Addor and V. Aoki, “Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis,” An. Bras. Dermatol. 85(2), 184–194 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Zhang, A. Papillon, E. Ruvolo, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “In vivo comparative documentation of skin hydration by confocal Raman microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7548, 75480M (2010).

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Iwasaki, K. Miyazawa, and S. Nakauchi, “Visualization of the human face skin moisturizing-ability by spectroscopic imaging using two near-infrared bands,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 606203 (2006).

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Y. Pande and R. Misri, “Sebumeter,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 71(6), 444–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tomita, M. Akiyama, and H. Shimizu, “Stratum corneum hydration and flexibility are useful parameters to indicate clinical severity of congenital ichthyosis,” Exp. Dermatol. 14(8), 619–624 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. A. Bouwstra, P. L. Honeywell-Nguyen, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations,” Prog. Lipid Res. 42(1), 1–36 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. I. Chung and H. J. Kim, “Near-infrared spectroscopy: principles,” Analytical Science and Technology 13(1), 1–14 (2000).

1995 (1)

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. Imokawa, H. Kuno, and M. Kawai, “Stratum corneum lipids serve as a bound-water modulator,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 96(6), 845–851 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

D. P. Lookingbill and W. J. Cunliffe, “A direct gravimetric technique for measuring sebum excretion rate,” Br. J. Dermatol. 114(1), 75–81 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Werner, “The water content of the stratum corneum in patients with atopic dermatitis. Measurement with the Corneometer CM 420,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 66(4), 281–284 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

Y. Werner and M. Lindberg, “Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 65(2), 102–105 (1985).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

D. P. Law and R. Tkachuk, “Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of wheat and components,” Cereal Chemistry Journal 54(2), 256–265 (1976).

1953 (1)

I. H. Blank, “Further observations on factors which influence the water content of the stratum corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 21(4), 259–271 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

I. H. Blank, “Factors which influence the water content of the stratum corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 18(6), 433–440 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abeck, D.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addor, F. A.

F. A. Addor and V. Aoki, “Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis,” An. Bras. Dermatol. 85(2), 184–194 (2010).
[PubMed]

Akiyama, M.

Y. Tomita, M. Akiyama, and H. Shimizu, “Stratum corneum hydration and flexibility are useful parameters to indicate clinical severity of congenital ichthyosis,” Exp. Dermatol. 14(8), 619–624 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, V.

F. A. Addor and V. Aoki, “Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis,” An. Bras. Dermatol. 85(2), 184–194 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bargo, P. R.

G. Zhang, A. Papillon, E. Ruvolo, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “In vivo comparative documentation of skin hydration by confocal Raman microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7548, 75480M (2010).

Behrendt, H.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, S. V.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beutner, K. R.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhushan, R.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blank, I. H.

I. H. Blank, “Further observations on factors which influence the water content of the stratum corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 21(4), 259–271 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Blank, “Factors which influence the water content of the stratum corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 18(6), 433–440 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boddé, H. E.

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwstra, J. A.

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bouwstra, P. L. Honeywell-Nguyen, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations,” Prog. Lipid Res. 42(1), 1–36 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandler, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H. I.

H. I. Chung and H. J. Kim, “Near-infrared spectroscopy: principles,” Analytical Science and Technology 13(1), 1–14 (2000).

Cunliffe, W. J.

D. P. Lookingbill and W. J. Cunliffe, “A direct gravimetric technique for measuring sebum excretion rate,” Br. J. Dermatol. 114(1), 75–81 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darsow, U.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, D. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dylla, H. F.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberlein-König, B.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckert, J.

Egawa, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elmets, C. A.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farinelli, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, S. R.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleming, C. P.

Gardecki, J. A.

Gooris, G. S.

J. A. Bouwstra, P. L. Honeywell-Nguyen, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations,” Prog. Lipid Res. 42(1), 1–36 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, K. B.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, A.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gubeli, J.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

Herbert, O.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirao, T.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honeywell-Nguyen, P. L.

J. A. Bouwstra, P. L. Honeywell-Nguyen, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations,” Prog. Lipid Res. 42(1), 1–36 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huss-Marp, J.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imokawa, G.

G. Imokawa, H. Kuno, and M. Kawai, “Stratum corneum lipids serve as a bound-water modulator,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 96(6), 845–851 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasaki, H.

H. Iwasaki, K. Miyazawa, and S. Nakauchi, “Visualization of the human face skin moisturizing-ability by spectroscopic imaging using two near-infrared bands,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 606203 (2006).

Janssens, M.

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, K.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawai, M.

G. Imokawa, H. Kuno, and M. Kawai, “Stratum corneum lipids serve as a bound-water modulator,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 96(6), 845–851 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. J.

H. I. Chung and H. J. Kim, “Near-infrared spectroscopy: principles,” Analytical Science and Technology 13(1), 1–14 (2000).

Kollias, N.

G. Zhang, A. Papillon, E. Ruvolo, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “In vivo comparative documentation of skin hydration by confocal Raman microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7548, 75480M (2010).

Koo, J. Y. M.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korman, N. J.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krämer, U.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuno, H.

G. Imokawa, H. Kuno, and M. Kawai, “Stratum corneum lipids serve as a bound-water modulator,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 96(6), 845–851 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laubach, H.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavrijsen, A. P.

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavrijsen, A. P. M.

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, D. P.

D. P. Law and R. Tkachuk, “Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of wheat and components,” Cereal Chemistry Journal 54(2), 256–265 (1976).

Lebwohl, M.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leonardi, C. L.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindberg, M.

Y. Werner and M. Lindberg, “Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 65(2), 102–105 (1985).
[PubMed]

Lookingbill, D. P.

D. P. Lookingbill and W. J. Cunliffe, “A direct gravimetric technique for measuring sebum excretion rate,” Br. J. Dermatol. 114(1), 75–81 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mancini, M. C.

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manstein, D.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruo, K.

K. Maruo and Yu. Yamada, “Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047003 (2015).

Matsumoto, M.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menter, A.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misri, R.

S. Y. Pande and R. Misri, “Sebumeter,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 71(6), 444–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyauchi, Y.

Miyazawa, K.

H. Iwasaki, K. Miyazawa, and S. Nakauchi, “Visualization of the human face skin moisturizing-ability by spectroscopic imaging using two near-infrared bands,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 606203 (2006).

Möhrenschlager, M.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naito, S.

Nakagawa, N.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakauchi, S.

H. Iwasaki, K. Miyazawa, and S. Nakauchi, “Visualization of the human face skin moisturizing-ability by spectroscopic imaging using two near-infrared bands,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 606203 (2006).

Neil, G. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pande, S. Y.

S. Y. Pande and R. Misri, “Sebumeter,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 71(6), 444–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papillon, A.

G. Zhang, A. Papillon, E. Ruvolo, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “In vivo comparative documentation of skin hydration by confocal Raman microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7548, 75480M (2010).

Ponec, M.

J. A. Bouwstra, P. L. Honeywell-Nguyen, G. S. Gooris, and M. Ponec, “Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations,” Prog. Lipid Res. 42(1), 1–36 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ring, J.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruvolo, E.

G. Zhang, A. Papillon, E. Ruvolo, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “In vivo comparative documentation of skin hydration by confocal Raman microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7548, 75480M (2010).

Sakai, S.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfer, T.

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

Y. Tomita, M. Akiyama, and H. Shimizu, “Stratum corneum hydration and flexibility are useful parameters to indicate clinical severity of congenital ichthyosis,” Exp. Dermatol. 14(8), 619–624 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinn, M.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, A. M.

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonda, J.

Takada, S. H.

Takahashi, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tkachuk, R.

D. P. Law and R. Tkachuk, “Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of wheat and components,” Cereal Chemistry Journal 54(2), 256–265 (1976).

Tomita, Y.

Y. Tomita, M. Akiyama, and H. Shimizu, “Stratum corneum hydration and flexibility are useful parameters to indicate clinical severity of congenital ichthyosis,” Exp. Dermatol. 14(8), 619–624 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Smeden, J.

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Voorhees, A. S.

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weerheim, A.

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, Y.

Y. Werner, “The water content of the stratum corneum in patients with atopic dermatitis. Measurement with the Corneometer CM 420,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 66(4), 281–284 (1986).
[PubMed]

Y. Werner and M. Lindberg, “Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 65(2), 102–105 (1985).
[PubMed]

Williams, G. P.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, Yu.

K. Maruo and Yu. Yamada, “Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047003 (2015).

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, A. Papillon, E. Ruvolo, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “In vivo comparative documentation of skin hydration by confocal Raman microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7548, 75480M (2010).

Acta Derm. Venereol. (4)

B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, O. Herbert, D. Abeck, U. Krämer, H. Behrendt, and J. Ring, “Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration, Trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 80(3), 188–191 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Werner, “The water content of the stratum corneum in patients with atopic dermatitis. Measurement with the Corneometer CM 420,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 66(4), 281–284 (1986).
[PubMed]

Y. Werner and M. Lindberg, “Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 65(2), 102–105 (1985).
[PubMed]

An. Bras. Dermatol. (1)

F. A. Addor and V. Aoki, “Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis,” An. Bras. Dermatol. 85(2), 184–194 (2010).
[PubMed]

Analytical Science and Technology (1)

H. I. Chung and H. J. Kim, “Near-infrared spectroscopy: principles,” Analytical Science and Technology 13(1), 1–14 (2000).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

M. Janssens, J. van Smeden, G. J. Puppels, A. P. M. Lavrijsen, P. J. Caspers, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Lipid to protein ratio plays an important role in the skin barrier function in patients with atopic eczema,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(6), 1248–1255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lookingbill and W. J. Cunliffe, “A direct gravimetric technique for measuring sebum excretion rate,” Br. J. Dermatol. 114(1), 75–81 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cereal Chemistry Journal (1)

D. P. Law and R. Tkachuk, “Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of wheat and components,” Cereal Chemistry Journal 54(2), 256–265 (1976).

Exp. Dermatol. (1)

Y. Tomita, M. Akiyama, and H. Shimizu, “Stratum corneum hydration and flexibility are useful parameters to indicate clinical severity of congenital ichthyosis,” Exp. Dermatol. 14(8), 619–624 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. (1)

S. Y. Pande and R. Misri, “Sebumeter,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 71(6), 444–446 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

A. Menter, A. Gottlieb, S. R. Feldman, A. S. Van Voorhees, C. L. Leonardi, K. B. Gordon, M. Lebwohl, J. Y. M. Koo, C. A. Elmets, N. J. Korman, K. R. Beutner, and R. Bhushan, “Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58(5), 826–850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Maruo and Yu. Yamada, “Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047003 (2015).

J. Invest. Dermatol. (4)

I. H. Blank, “Further observations on factors which influence the water content of the stratum corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 21(4), 259–271 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Blank, “Factors which influence the water content of the stratum corneum,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 18(6), 433–440 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Lavrijsen, J. A. Bouwstra, G. S. Gooris, A. Weerheim, H. E. Boddé, and M. Ponec, “Reduced skin barrier function parallels abnormal stratum corneum lipid organization in patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 105(4), 619–624 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Imokawa, H. Kuno, and M. Kawai, “Stratum corneum lipids serve as a bound-water modulator,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 96(6), 845–851 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissue: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ratio of absorption coefficient of sebum to water measured in the shown spectral range between 800 to 2400 nm. Yellow bands represent the optimal spectral bands for simultaneous hydration and sebum sensing defined by high absorption coefficients of water and sebum and a large ratio of the absorption coefficients to obtain high contrast.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental set-up: LD1 – Laser Diode (1720 ± 4 nm, Roithner Laser), LD2 – Laser Diode (1750 ± 5 nm nm, Roithner Laser), LD3 – Laser Diode (1770 ± 20 nm, Roithner Laser), F – Narrowband filter (1770 ± 5 nm, Spectrogon), M1, M2, M3, M4 – mirrors, M5 – Mirror with a central aperture, FM1, FM2 – Flipping mirrors, L1, L3, L5 – Aspheric lenses, L2 (f = 300 mm, L4 (f = 300 mm), L6 (f = 75 mm), L7 (f = 150 mm), L8 (f = 35 mm,)– Plano convex lenses L9 (f = 35 mm) – Biconvex lens, L10 (f = 25.4 mm, LA1951-C) P1s, P2p – polarizers, PD – photodiode (DET30B/M).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Volume fraction of water measured in-vivo using our experimental set-up and Corneometer for different water-sebum mixture samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Volume fraction of sebum measured in-vivo using our experimental set-up and Sebumeter for different water-sebum mixture samples.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mapping of various skin conditions on the forehead and its variations to different stimuli and comparison with Corneometer and Sebumeter.

Equations (4)

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I 1 = I 0 1 . exp( ( μ s 1 + μ a s 1 . c s + μ a w 1 . c w ). z )
I 2 = I 0 2 .exp( ( μ s 2 + μ a s 2 . c s + μ a w 2 . c w ). z )
c s = ln( I o 2 I 2 ). 1 z . μ a w 2 μ s 2 μ a w 2 n( I o 1 I 1 ). 1 z . μ a w 1 + μ s 1 μ a w 1 μ a s 2 μ a w 2 μ a s 1 μ a w 1
c w = ln( I o 1 I 1 ) . μ s 2 z z. μ s 1 .( μ a s 2 2. μ a w 2 . μ a s 1 . μ a w 1 )ln( I o 2 I 2 ). μ a s 1 z + μ a s 1 . μ s 2 μ a s 2 . μ a w 1 μ a s 1 . μ a w 2

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