Abstract

Early identification of premalignant and malignant gastric mucosa is crucial to decrease the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer. Spectrum- and time-resolved multiphoton microscopy are capable of providing not only structural but also biochemical information at the subcellular level. Based on this multidimensional imaging technique, we performed a systematic investigation on fresh human tissue specimens at the typical stages of gastric carcinogenesis, including normal, chronic gastritis with erosion, chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, and intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. The results demonstrate that this technique is available to characterize the three-dimensional subcellular morphological and biochemical properties of gastric mucosa and further provide quantitative indicators of different gastric disorders, by using endogenous contrast. With advances in multiphoton endoscopy, it has the potential to allow noninvasive, label-free, real-time histological and functional diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of stomach in the future.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (5)

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, W. Zheng, J. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93291P (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, A. Klinger, S. Freidank, N. Linz, S. Eckert, G. Hüttmann, A. Gebert, and A. Vogel, “Probing the immune and healing response of murine intestinal mucosa by time-lapse 2-photon microscopy of laser-induced lesions with real-time dosimetry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3521–3540 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

R. Cicchi, A. Sturiale, G. Nesi, D. Kapsokalyvas, G. Alemanno, F. Tonelli, and F. S. Pavone, “Multiphoton morpho-functional imaging of healthy colon mucosa, adenomatous polyp and adenocarcinoma,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1204–1213 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Meng, Y. Zhou, T. Dang, X. Y. Tian, and J. Kong, “Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(3), 404–410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu and L. Fu, “Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

W. Hu, H. Li, C. Wang, S. Gou, and L. Fu, “Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 026007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime techniques in medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(2), 304–331 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Goetz, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: applications in clinical and translational science—a comprehensive review,” ISRN Pathol. 2012, 387145 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: a primer for pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

K. Yao, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, and K. Ragunath, “Magnifying endoscopy for diagnosing and delineating early gastric cancer,” Endoscopy 41(5), 462–467 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chorvat and A. Chorvatova, “Multi-wavelength fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: a new approach to the study of endogenous fluorescence in living cells and tissues,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 175–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, J. Reynolds, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, W. Zheng, and J. Y. Qu, “Time-resolved spectroscopic imaging reveals the fundamentals of cellular NADH fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2365–2367 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

Y. Wu, W. Zheng, and J. Y. Qu, “Sensing cell metabolism by time-resolved autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3122–3124 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leppert, J. Krajewski, S. R. Kantelhardt, S. Schlaffer, N. Petkus, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Multiphoton excitation of autofluorescence for microscopy of glioma tissue,” Neurosurgery 58(4), 759–767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

P. Correa, “Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process-First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention,” Cancer Res. 52(24), 6735–6740 (1992).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

H. J. Shin and J. L. Mego, “A rat liver lysosomal membrane flavin-adenine dinucleotide phosphohydrolase: purification and characterization,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267(1), 95–103 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

P. Lauren, “The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. An attempt at a histo-clinical classification,” Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 64(1), 31–49 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alemanno, G.

Alonzo, C.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anagnostopoulos, G. K.

K. Yao, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, and K. Ragunath, “Magnifying endoscopy for diagnosing and delineating early gastric cancer,” Endoscopy 41(5), 462–467 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asfaha, S.

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aslanian, H.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, S.

H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babai, F.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balassy, A.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, H.

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, J. Reynolds, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baunge, E. L.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beemiller, P.

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergin, P.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, L.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blessenohl, M.

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boldajipour, B.

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boussioutas, A.

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, J. Reynolds, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bückle, R.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chorvat, D.

D. Chorvat and A. Chorvatova, “Multi-wavelength fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: a new approach to the study of endogenous fluorescence in living cells and tissues,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 175–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chorvatova, A.

D. Chorvat and A. Chorvatova, “Multi-wavelength fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: a new approach to the study of endogenous fluorescence in living cells and tissues,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 175–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cicchi, R.

Correa, P.

P. Correa, “Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process-First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention,” Cancer Res. 52(24), 6735–6740 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cui, Q.

H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dang, T.

X. M. Meng, Y. Zhou, T. Dang, X. Y. Tian, and J. Kong, “Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(3), 404–410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Datta, R.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doyama, H.

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durocher, G.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dustin, M. L.

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckert, S.

Egeblad, M.

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehlers, A.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enarsson, K.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, J. J.

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. H.

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: a primer for pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fooksman, D. R.

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freidank, S.

Fu, L.

H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
[PubMed]

W. Hu and L. Fu, “Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, H. Li, C. Wang, S. Gou, and L. Fu, “Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 026007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, S.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaboury, L.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gebert, A.

R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, A. Klinger, S. Freidank, N. Linz, S. Eckert, G. Hüttmann, A. Gebert, and A. Vogel, “Probing the immune and healing response of murine intestinal mucosa by time-lapse 2-photon microscopy of laser-induced lesions with real-time dosimetry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3521–3540 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S. C.

Giese, A.

J. Leppert, J. Krajewski, S. R. Kantelhardt, S. Schlaffer, N. Petkus, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Multiphoton excitation of autofluorescence for microscopy of glioma tissue,” Neurosurgery 58(4), 759–767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

M. Goetz, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: applications in clinical and translational science—a comprehensive review,” ISRN Pathol. 2012, 387145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gotoda, T.

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gou, S.

W. Hu, H. Li, C. Wang, S. Gou, and L. Fu, “Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 026007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

Grosberg, L. E.

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, J. Reynolds, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heylman, C.

Hillman, E. M.

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiramatsu, Y.

H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirschberg, J. G.

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hisabe, T.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hovsepyan, L.

A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

W. Hu and L. Fu, “Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, H. Li, C. Wang, S. Gou, and L. Fu, “Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 026007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Zheng, J. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93291P (2015).
[Crossref]

Huettmann, G.

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

Hyatt, B. J.

P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: a primer for pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwashita, A.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, N.

J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
[PubMed]

Johnsson, E.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaatz, M.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamiya, K.

H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanemitsu, T.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kantelhardt, S. R.

J. Leppert, J. Krajewski, S. R. Kantelhardt, S. Schlaffer, N. Petkus, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Multiphoton excitation of autofluorescence for microscopy of glioma tissue,” Neurosurgery 58(4), 759–767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

Karabashyan, L.

A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karageuzyan, K.

A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klinger, A.

R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, A. Klinger, S. Freidank, N. Linz, S. Eckert, G. Hüttmann, A. Gebert, and A. Vogel, “Probing the immune and healing response of murine intestinal mucosa by time-lapse 2-photon microscopy of laser-induced lesions with real-time dosimetry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3521–3540 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohen, C.

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohen, E.

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

X. M. Meng, Y. Zhou, T. Dang, X. Y. Tian, and J. Kong, “Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(3), 404–410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, K.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
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H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
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A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
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J. Leppert, J. Krajewski, S. R. Kantelhardt, S. Schlaffer, N. Petkus, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Multiphoton excitation of autofluorescence for microscopy of glioma tissue,” Neurosurgery 58(4), 759–767 (2006).
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J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
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S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
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H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
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J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
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J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
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H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
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H. J. Shin and J. L. Mego, “A rat liver lysosomal membrane flavin-adenine dinucleotide phosphohydrolase: purification and characterization,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267(1), 95–103 (1988).
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M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
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H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
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S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
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K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
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J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
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Nikitin, A. Y.

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M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
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K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
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H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
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A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
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J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
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K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
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E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
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A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
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Quiding-Järbrink, M.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
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Quinn, K. P.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
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L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
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K. Yao, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, and K. Ragunath, “Magnifying endoscopy for diagnosing and delineating early gastric cancer,” Endoscopy 41(5), 462–467 (2009).
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J. Leppert, J. Krajewski, S. R. Kantelhardt, S. Schlaffer, N. Petkus, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Multiphoton excitation of autofluorescence for microscopy of glioma tissue,” Neurosurgery 58(4), 759–767 (2006).
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H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, J. Reynolds, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064031 (2009).
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Riemann, I.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robert, M. E.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogart, J. N.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roorda, R. D.

J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
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Russell, S.

H. Bao, A. Boussioutas, J. Reynolds, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064031 (2009).
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Salmon, J.-M.

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schenkl, S.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlaffer, S.

J. Leppert, J. Krajewski, S. R. Kantelhardt, S. Schlaffer, N. Petkus, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Multiphoton excitation of autofluorescence for microscopy of glioma tissue,” Neurosurgery 58(4), 759–767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schueth, A.

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwickert, T. A.

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seike, E.

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shin, H. J.

H. J. Shin and J. L. Mego, “A rat liver lysosomal membrane flavin-adenine dinucleotide phosphohydrolase: purification and characterization,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267(1), 95–103 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shitaya, M.

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. L.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skokos, D.

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sood, D.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorensen, C.

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strömberg, E.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuntz, E.

E. Stuntz, Y. Gong, D. Sood, V. Liaudanskaya, D. Pouli, K. P. Quinn, C. Alonzo, Z. Liu, D. L. Kaplan, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence imaging characterizes neuron and astrocyte metabolic responses to manganese toxicity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1041 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturiale, A.

Svennerholm, A. M.

K. Enarsson, E. Johnsson, C. Lindholm, A. Lundgren, Q. Pan-Hammarström, E. Strömberg, P. Bergin, E. L. Baunge, A. M. Svennerholm, and M. Quiding-Järbrink, “Differential mechanisms for T lymphocyte recruitment in normal and neoplastic human gastric mucosa,” Clin. Immunol. 118(1), 24–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabuchi, M.

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takatsu, N.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanabe, H.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thorell, B.

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, X. Y.

X. M. Meng, Y. Zhou, T. Dang, X. Y. Tian, and J. Kong, “Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(3), 404–410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonelli, F.

Torre, L. A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tounou, S.

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchita, K.

S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viallet, P.

J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Victora, G. D.

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, L.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

von Smolinski, D.

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

W. Hu, H. Li, C. Wang, S. Gou, and L. Fu, “Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 026007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Zheng, J. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93291P (2015).
[Crossref]

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P. E. Paull, B. J. Hyatt, W. Wassef, and A. H. Fischer, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy: a primer for pathologists,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 135(10), 1343–1348 (2011).
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W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
[PubMed]

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J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
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W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J.-M. Salmon, E. Kohen, P. Viallet, J. G. Hirschberg, A. W. Wouters, C. Kohen, and B. Thorell, “Microspectrofluorometric approach to the study of free/bound NAD(P)H ratio as metabolic indicator in various cell types,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36(5), 585–593 (1982).
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Xu, L.

J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
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J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
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S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
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S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yao, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, and K. Ragunath, “Magnifying endoscopy for diagnosing and delineating early gastric cancer,” Endoscopy 41(5), 462–467 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, M.

J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoi, C.

K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
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Zakaryan, A.

A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
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A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
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Zeng, Y.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhao, G.

W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

Z. Wang, W. Zheng, J. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93291P (2015).
[Crossref]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
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X. M. Meng, Y. Zhou, T. Dang, X. Y. Tian, and J. Kong, “Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(3), 404–410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuo, S.

J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, N. Liu, S. Zhuo, H. Yu, and M. Ying, “A pilot study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose gastric cancer,” Surg. Endosc. 25(5), 1425–1430 (2011).
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J. N. Rogart, J. Nagata, C. S. Loeser, R. D. Roorda, H. Aslanian, M. E. Robert, W. R. Zipfel, and M. H. Nathanson, “Multiphoton imaging can be used for microscopic examination of intact human gastrointestinal mucosa ex vivo,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6(1), 95–101 (2008).
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H. Kikuchi, K. Kamiya, Y. Hiramatsu, S. Miyazaki, M. Yamamoto, M. Ohta, S. Baba, and H. Konno, “Laparoscopic narrow-band imaging for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(12), 3954–3962 (2014).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
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Cancer Cell (1)

J. J. Engelhardt, B. Boldajipour, P. Beemiller, P. Pandurangi, C. Sorensen, Z. Werb, M. Egeblad, and M. F. Krummel, “Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Cell 21(3), 402–417 (2012).
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Cancer Lett. (1)

M. Kobayashi, H. Tajiri, E. Seike, M. Shitaya, S. Tounou, M. Mine, and K. Oba, “Detection of early gastric cancer by a real-time autofluorescence imaging system,” Cancer Lett. 165(2), 155–159 (2001).
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Endoscopy (1)

K. Yao, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, and K. Ragunath, “Magnifying endoscopy for diagnosing and delineating early gastric cancer,” Endoscopy 41(5), 462–467 (2009).
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S. Fujiwara, K. Yao, T. Nagahama, K. Uchita, T. Kanemitsu, K. Tsurumi, N. Takatsu, T. Hisabe, H. Tanabe, A. Iwashita, and T. Matsui, “Can we accurately diagnose minute gastric cancers (≤5 mm)? Chromoendoscopy (CE) vs magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI),” Gastric Cancer 18(3), 590–596 (2015).
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K. Yao, H. Doyama, T. Gotoda, H. Ishikawa, T. Nagahama, C. Yokoi, I. Oda, H. Machida, K. Uchita, and M. Tabuchi, “Diagnostic performance and limitations of magnifying narrow-band imaging in screening endoscopy of early gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter feasibility study,” Gastric Cancer 17(4), 669–679 (2014).
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Histochem. Cell Biol. (1)

A. Klinger, R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, D. von Smolinski, M. Blessenohl, A. Schueth, N. Koop, G. Huettmann, and A. Gebert, “Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa revealed by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy,” Histochem. Cell Biol. 137(3), 269–278 (2012).
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Immunity (1)

D. R. Fooksman, T. A. Schwickert, G. D. Victora, M. L. Dustin, M. C. Nussenzweig, and D. Skokos, “Development and migration of plasma cells in the mouse lymph node,” Immunity 33(1), 118–127 (2010).
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Int. Immunol. (1)

A. Zakaryan, K. Karageuzyan, L. Hovsepyan, L. Karabashyan, and G. Zakaryan, “Quantitative analysis of phospholipids and gangliosides in bone marrow progenitors of lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature lymphocytes in tumor-bearing animals,” Int. Immunol. 13(9), 1141–1145 (2001).
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W. Hu and L. Fu, “Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056002 (2013).
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S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, S. Li, D. Li, Y. Zeng, Y. Yang, and J. Y. Qu, “Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy improves the accuracy of early diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu, H. Li, C. Wang, S. Gou, and L. Fu, “Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 026007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. BUON (1)

J. Shi, N. Jin, Y. Li, S. Wei, and L. Xu, “Clinical study of autofluorescence imaging combined with narrow band imaging in diagnosing early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions,” J. BUON 20(5), 1215–1222 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 31(3), 101–112 (1995).
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L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, and E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS One 6(5), e19925 (2011).
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W. Hu, G. Zhao, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Fu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues,” PLoS One 7(5), e37962 (2012).
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W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Wang, W. Zheng, J. Lin, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 9329, 93291P (2015).
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H. Li, Q. Cui, Z. Zhang, L. Fu, and Q. Luo, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for immunoimaging: a custom optimized system of high-speed, large-area, multicolor imaging,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 5(1), 30–39 (2015).
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X. M. Meng, Y. Zhou, T. Dang, X. Y. Tian, and J. Kong, “Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer,” World J. Gastroenterol. 19(3), 404–410 (2013).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the spectrum- and time-resolved MPM imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image segmentation algorithm for separating PWGP and ITGP. (A) Algorithm flow chart. (B) The final segmentation results of exemplar images (left column) and the pseudo-color merged images of raw Ch3, Ch8, and Ch14 images as well as the ITGP edges (right column). The blue, green, and red border images are processed through the blue, green, and red paths in the flowchart, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the gastric mucosa with epithelium, upper portion of lamina propria, and gastric pits (longitudinal view, not true to scale).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum-coded 3D structures and corresponding histology of the normal and diseased human gastric antrum mucosa: (A) normal; (B) chronic gastritis with erosion; (C) chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia; (D) intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. The spectrum-coded images with different depths (transverse view) and corresponding 3D images are shown in the first four rows and the fifth row, respectively. The depth is labeled in the bottom left corner of each panel. The H&E stained histology images (longitudinal view) are displayed in the last row. Scale bars are 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral characteristics of the multiple components of the normal and diseased human gastric antrum mucosa: comparison of different structural components including mucosal surface (MS), peripheral wall of gastric pits (PWGP), and interstitial tissue between gastric pits (ITGP). (A) The ratio of SHG signal to TPEF. (B) The spectra of TPEF. The error bars denote the SEM. The black circle marks out the vice fluorescence peak. (C) The ratio of TPEF with long wavelength (517 ± 6.25 nm) to that with short wavelength (417 ± 6.25 nm). The black solid lines in (A) and (C) indicate the mean values. ns: no significant difference; ***: P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral characteristics of the multiple components of the normal and diseased human gastric antrum mucosa: comparison of normal tissue and diseased tissues of chronic gastritis with erosion (CG-E), chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia (CG-IM), and intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (ITA). (A) The ratio of SHG signal to TPEF. (B) The spectra of TPEF. The error bars denote the SEM. (C) The ratio of TPEF with long wavelength (517 ± 6.25 nm) to that with short wavelength (417 ± 6.25 nm). The black solid lines in (A) and (C) indicate the mean values. ns: no significant difference; *: 0.01 <P < 0.05; **: 0.001 <P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The differences of TPEF spectral parameters between interstitial tissue between gastric pits (ITGP) and peripheral wall of gastric pits (PWGP). (A) The TPEF spectral difference. The error bars denote the SEM. (B) The difference of TPEF spectral ratio. The TPEF spectral ratio was computed by dividing TPEF with long wavelength (517 ± 6.25 nm) by that with short wavelength (417 ± 6.25 nm)). The black solid lines indicate the mean values. *: 0.01 <P < 0.05; **: 0.001 <P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluorescence lifetime-coded 3D structures of the normal and diseased human gastric antrum mucosa: (A) normal; (B) chronic gastritis with erosion; (C) chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia; (D) intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. The depth is labeled in the bottom left corner of each panel. The scale bar is 50 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

NADH fluorescence lifetime characteristics of the multiple components of the normal and diseased human gastric antrum mucosa: comparison of different structural components including mucosal surface (MS), peripheral wall of gastric pits (PWGP), and interstitial tissue between gastric pits (ITGP). (A) The fluorescence lifetime of free NADH: τ1. (B) The fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH: τ2. (C) The ratio of the amplitude coefficient of free NADH to that of protein-bound NADH: α1/α2. (D) The mean fluorescence lifetime: τmean. The error bars denote the SEM. ns: no significant difference; *: 0.01 <P < 0.05; **: 0.001 <P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

NADH fluorescence lifetime characteristics of the multiple components of the normal and diseased human gastric antrum mucosa: comparison of normal tissue and diseased tissues of chronic gastritis with erosion (CG-E), chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia (CG-IM), and intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (ITA). (A) The fluorescence lifetime of free NADH: τ1. (B) The fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH: τ2. (C) The ratio of the amplitude coefficient of free NADH to that of protein-bound NADH: α1/α2. (D) The mean fluorescence lifetime: τmean. The error bars denote the SEM. ns: no significant difference; *: 0.01 <P < 0.05; **: 0.001 <P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Sample summary

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Table 2 Abbreviations used in this study