Abstract

Distinguishing between whole cells and cell debris is important in microscopy, e.g., in screening of pulmonary patients for infectious tuberculosis. We propose and theoretically demonstrate that whole cells and cell debris can be distinguished from the far-field pattern of surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE) of a fluorescently-labeled sample placed on a thin metal layer. If fluorescently-labeled whole cells are placed on the metal film, SPCE takes place simultaneously at two or more different angles and creates two or more distinct rings in the far field. By contrast, if fluorescently-labeled cell debris are placed on the metal film, SPCE takes place at only one angle and creates one ring in the far-field. We find that the angular separation of the far-field rings is sufficiently distinct to use the presence of one or more rings to distinguish between whole cells and cell debris. The proposed technique has the potential for detection without the use of a microscope.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (1)

X.-M. Wan, R. Gao, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, “Self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering using plasmon waveguide resonance for surface and bulk sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 041906 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

T. Yoshino, K. Takai, R. Negishi, T. Saeki, H. Kanbara, Y. Kikuhara, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Rapid imaging and detection of circulating tumor cells using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system,” Anal. Chimica Acta 969, 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Perez, N. Ybarra, F. Chagnon, M. Serban, S. Lee, J. Seuntjens, O. Lesur, and I. E. Naqa, “Tracking of mesenchymal stemcells with fluorescence endomicroscopy imaging in radiotherapy-induced lung injury,” Scientific Reports 7, 40748 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Uddin and M. A. Talukder, “Imaging of cell membrane topography using Tamm plasmon coupled emission,” Biomed. Phys. & Eng. Express 3, 065005 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Z. Uddin, M. R. Tanvir, and M. A. Talukder, “A proposal and an analysis of an enhanced surface plasmon coupled emission structure for single molecule detection,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 204701 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Q. Liu, S.-H. Cao, W.-P. Cai, X.-Q. Liu, Y.-H. Weng, K.-X. Xie, S.-X. Huo, and Y.-Q. Li, “Surface plasmon coupled emission in micrometer-scale cells: A leap from interface to bulk targets,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  119, 2921–2927 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. Wallwiener, S. Riethdorf, A. D. Hartkopf, C. Modugno, J. Nees, D. Madhavan, M. R. Sprick, S. Schott, C. Domschke, I. Baccelli, B. Schönfisch, B. Burwinkel, F. Marmé, J. Heil, C. Sohn, K. Pantel, A. Trumpp, and A. Schneeweiss, “Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients,” BMC Cancer 14, 512 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. de Jager, S. Fickling, S. Krishnan, and T. Douglas, “Automated fluorescence microscope for tuberculosis detection,” J. Med. Devices 8, 030943 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Toma, H. Kano, and A. Offenhäusser, “Label-free measurement of cell-electrode cleft gap distance with high spatial resolution surface plasmon microscopy,” ACS Nano 8, 12612–12619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kristoffersen, S. R. Erga, B. Hamre, and Ø. Frette, “Testing fluorescence lifetime standards using two-photon excitation and time-domain instrumentation: Rhodamine B, coumarin 6 and lucifer yellow,”J. Fluorescence 24, 1015–1024 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

D. S. Johnson, J. K. Jaiswal, and S. Simon, “Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy illuminator for improved imaging of cell surface events,” Current Protocols in Cytometry 61, 1–19 (2012).

J. Chang, P. Arbeláez, N. Switz, C. Reber, A. Tapley, J. L. Davis, A. Cattamanchi, D. Fletcher, and J. Malik, “Automated tuberculosis diagnosis using fluorescence images from a mobile microscope,” Med. Image Comput. and Comput.-Assist. Intervention 15, 345–352 (2012).

2010 (3)

R. S. Sathish, Y. Kostov, and G. Rao, “Low-cost plastic plasmonic substrates for operation in aqueous environments,” Appl. Spectroscopy 64, 1234–1237 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. L. Mattheyses, S. M. Simon, and J. Z. Rappoport, “Imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for the cell biologist,” J. Cell Science 123, 3621–3628 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Anantharam, B. Onoa, R. H. Edwards, R. W. Holz, and D. Axelrod, “Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized tirfm,” J. Cell Biology 188, 415–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. M. Cook, M. Berney, S. Gebhard, M. Heinemann, R. A. Cox, O. Danilchanka, and M. Niederweis, “Physiology of mycobacteria,” Adv. Microb. Phys. 55, 81–182, 318–319 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4, e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

W. Choi, C.F. Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shenkin, R. Babu, and R. Maiese, “Accurate assessment of cell count and viability with a flow cytometer,” Cytometer Part B 72B, 427–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

P. Terho and O. Lassila, “Novel method for cell debris removal in the flow cytometric cell cycle analysis using carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester,” Cytometry Part A 69A, 552–554 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, “Application of surface plasmon coupled emission to study of muscle,” Biophys. J. 91, 2626–2635 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, K. Nowaczyk, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Waveguide-modulated surface plasmon-coupled emission of Nile blue in poly(vinyl alcohol) thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 15–20 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Anthony, A. H. J. Kolk, S. Kuijper, and P. R. Klaster, “Light emitting diodes for auramine O fluorescence microscopic screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Int. J. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10, 1060–1062 (2006).

2005 (2)

N. Calander, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission and Fabry-Perot resonance in the sample layer: A theoretical approach,” J. Phys. Chem. 109, 13957–13963 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 023005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 4. Experimental studies of surface plasmon-coupled directional emission,” Anal. Biochem. 324, 170–182 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 3. Surface plasmon-coupled directional emission,” Aanal. Biochem. 324, 153–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional surface plasmon-coupled emission: a new method for high sensitivity detection,” Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435–439 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Axelrod, “Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology,” Traffic 2764–774, (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. A. King, “Detection of dead cells and measurement of cell killing by flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Meth. 243, 155–166 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. E. Sund, J. A. Swanson, and D. Axelrod, “Cell membrane orientation visualized by polarized total internal reflection fluorescence,” Biophys. J. 77, 2266–2283 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. P. Cobb, R. S. Hotchkiss, I. E. Karl, and T. G. Buchman, “Mechanisms of cell injury and death,” British J. of Anaesthesia 77, 3–10 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. Bruni, L. Ferrante, G. Koch, C. Scoglio, and G. Starace, “A stochastic model for cell debris in flow cytometry,” J. of Theoretical Biology 161, 157–174 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Reichert and G. Truskey, “Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. I. Modelling cell contact region fluorescence,” J. Cell Science 96, 219–230 (1990).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. Gingell, O. Heavens, and J. Mellor, “General electromagnetic theory of total internal reflection fluorescence: The quantitative basis for mapping cell-substratum topography,” J. Cell Science 87, 677–693 (1987).
[PubMed]

1972 (1)

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Comm. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adam, P.

Anantharam, A.

A. Anantharam, B. Onoa, R. H. Edwards, R. W. Holz, and D. Axelrod, “Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized tirfm,” J. Cell Biology 188, 415–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anthony, R. M.

R. M. Anthony, A. H. J. Kolk, S. Kuijper, and P. R. Klaster, “Light emitting diodes for auramine O fluorescence microscopic screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Int. J. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10, 1060–1062 (2006).

Arbeláez, P.

J. Chang, P. Arbeláez, N. Switz, C. Reber, A. Tapley, J. L. Davis, A. Cattamanchi, D. Fletcher, and J. Malik, “Automated tuberculosis diagnosis using fluorescence images from a mobile microscope,” Med. Image Comput. and Comput.-Assist. Intervention 15, 345–352 (2012).

Axelrod, D.

A. Anantharam, B. Onoa, R. H. Edwards, R. W. Holz, and D. Axelrod, “Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized tirfm,” J. Cell Biology 188, 415–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Axelrod, “Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology,” Traffic 2764–774, (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Sund, J. A. Swanson, and D. Axelrod, “Cell membrane orientation visualized by polarized total internal reflection fluorescence,” Biophys. J. 77, 2266–2283 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayi, T. C.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babu, R.

M. Shenkin, R. Babu, and R. Maiese, “Accurate assessment of cell count and viability with a flow cytometer,” Cytometer Part B 72B, 427–432 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baccelli, I.

M. Wallwiener, S. Riethdorf, A. D. Hartkopf, C. Modugno, J. Nees, D. Madhavan, M. R. Sprick, S. Schott, C. Domschke, I. Baccelli, B. Schönfisch, B. Burwinkel, F. Marmé, J. Heil, C. Sohn, K. Pantel, A. Trumpp, and A. Schneeweiss, “Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients,” BMC Cancer 14, 512 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C.F. Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaa, K.

K. Balaa, V. Devauges, Y. Goulam, V. Studer, S.L. Fort, and Fort Emmanuel, “Live cell imaging with surface plasmon-mediated fluorescence microscopy,” In Proc. European Conference on Biomedical Optics, 736010 (2009).

Berney, M.

G. M. Cook, M. Berney, S. Gebhard, M. Heinemann, R. A. Cox, O. Danilchanka, and M. Niederweis, “Physiology of mycobacteria,” Adv. Microb. Phys. 55, 81–182, 318–319 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bocchio, N.

F. Stefani, K. Vasilev, N. Bocchio, N. Stoyanova, and M. Kreiter, “Surface-plasmon-mediated single-molecule fluorescence through a thin metallic film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 023005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borejdo, J.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, “Application of surface plasmon coupled emission to study of muscle,” Biophys. J. 91, 2626–2635 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourouina, T.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4, e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruni, C.

C. Bruni, L. Ferrante, G. Koch, C. Scoglio, and G. Starace, “A stochastic model for cell debris in flow cytometry,” J. of Theoretical Biology 161, 157–174 (1993).
[Crossref]

Buchman, T. G.

J. P. Cobb, R. S. Hotchkiss, I. E. Karl, and T. G. Buchman, “Mechanisms of cell injury and death,” British J. of Anaesthesia 77, 3–10 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burwinkel, B.

M. Wallwiener, S. Riethdorf, A. D. Hartkopf, C. Modugno, J. Nees, D. Madhavan, M. R. Sprick, S. Schott, C. Domschke, I. Baccelli, B. Schönfisch, B. Burwinkel, F. Marmé, J. Heil, C. Sohn, K. Pantel, A. Trumpp, and A. Schneeweiss, “Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients,” BMC Cancer 14, 512 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.-P.

Q. Liu, S.-H. Cao, W.-P. Cai, X.-Q. Liu, Y.-H. Weng, K.-X. Xie, S.-X. Huo, and Y.-Q. Li, “Surface plasmon coupled emission in micrometer-scale cells: A leap from interface to bulk targets,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  119, 2921–2927 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, “Application of surface plasmon coupled emission to study of muscle,” Biophys. J. 91, 2626–2635 (2006).
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J. Chang, P. Arbeláez, N. Switz, C. Reber, A. Tapley, J. L. Davis, A. Cattamanchi, D. Fletcher, and J. Malik, “Automated tuberculosis diagnosis using fluorescence images from a mobile microscope,” Med. Image Comput. and Comput.-Assist. Intervention 15, 345–352 (2012).

Chagnon, F.

J. P. Perez, N. Ybarra, F. Chagnon, M. Serban, S. Lee, J. Seuntjens, O. Lesur, and I. E. Naqa, “Tracking of mesenchymal stemcells with fluorescence endomicroscopy imaging in radiotherapy-induced lung injury,” Scientific Reports 7, 40748 (2017).
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J. Chang, P. Arbeláez, N. Switz, C. Reber, A. Tapley, J. L. Davis, A. Cattamanchi, D. Fletcher, and J. Malik, “Automated tuberculosis diagnosis using fluorescence images from a mobile microscope,” Med. Image Comput. and Comput.-Assist. Intervention 15, 345–352 (2012).

Chen, H. F.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
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P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
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J. P. Cobb, R. S. Hotchkiss, I. E. Karl, and T. G. Buchman, “Mechanisms of cell injury and death,” British J. of Anaesthesia 77, 3–10 (1996).
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G. M. Cook, M. Berney, S. Gebhard, M. Heinemann, R. A. Cox, O. Danilchanka, and M. Niederweis, “Physiology of mycobacteria,” Adv. Microb. Phys. 55, 81–182, 318–319 (2009).
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G. M. Cook, M. Berney, S. Gebhard, M. Heinemann, R. A. Cox, O. Danilchanka, and M. Niederweis, “Physiology of mycobacteria,” Adv. Microb. Phys. 55, 81–182, 318–319 (2009).
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W. Choi, C.F. Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
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J. Chang, P. Arbeláez, N. Switz, C. Reber, A. Tapley, J. L. Davis, A. Cattamanchi, D. Fletcher, and J. Malik, “Automated tuberculosis diagnosis using fluorescence images from a mobile microscope,” Med. Image Comput. and Comput.-Assist. Intervention 15, 345–352 (2012).

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M. Wallwiener, S. Riethdorf, A. D. Hartkopf, C. Modugno, J. Nees, D. Madhavan, M. R. Sprick, S. Schott, C. Domschke, I. Baccelli, B. Schönfisch, B. Burwinkel, F. Marmé, J. Heil, C. Sohn, K. Pantel, A. Trumpp, and A. Schneeweiss, “Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients,” BMC Cancer 14, 512 (2014).
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Douglas, T.

K. de Jager, S. Fickling, S. Krishnan, and T. Douglas, “Automated fluorescence microscope for tuberculosis detection,” J. Med. Devices 8, 030943 (2014).
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R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Comm. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
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A. Anantharam, B. Onoa, R. H. Edwards, R. W. Holz, and D. Axelrod, “Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized tirfm,” J. Cell Biology 188, 415–428 (2010).
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A. S. Kristoffersen, S. R. Erga, B. Hamre, and Ø. Frette, “Testing fluorescence lifetime standards using two-photon excitation and time-domain instrumentation: Rhodamine B, coumarin 6 and lucifer yellow,”J. Fluorescence 24, 1015–1024 (2014).
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W. Choi, C.F. Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
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K. de Jager, S. Fickling, S. Krishnan, and T. Douglas, “Automated fluorescence microscope for tuberculosis detection,” J. Med. Devices 8, 030943 (2014).
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Fletcher, D.

J. Chang, P. Arbeláez, N. Switz, C. Reber, A. Tapley, J. L. Davis, A. Cattamanchi, D. Fletcher, and J. Malik, “Automated tuberculosis diagnosis using fluorescence images from a mobile microscope,” Med. Image Comput. and Comput.-Assist. Intervention 15, 345–352 (2012).

Fletcher, D. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4, e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Balaa, V. Devauges, Y. Goulam, V. Studer, S.L. Fort, and Fort Emmanuel, “Live cell imaging with surface plasmon-mediated fluorescence microscopy,” In Proc. European Conference on Biomedical Optics, 736010 (2009).

Frette, Ø.

A. S. Kristoffersen, S. R. Erga, B. Hamre, and Ø. Frette, “Testing fluorescence lifetime standards using two-photon excitation and time-domain instrumentation: Rhodamine B, coumarin 6 and lucifer yellow,”J. Fluorescence 24, 1015–1024 (2014).
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X.-M. Wan, R. Gao, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, “Self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering using plasmon waveguide resonance for surface and bulk sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 041906 (2018).
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K. Balaa, V. Devauges, Y. Goulam, V. Studer, S.L. Fort, and Fort Emmanuel, “Live cell imaging with surface plasmon-mediated fluorescence microscopy,” In Proc. European Conference on Biomedical Optics, 736010 (2009).

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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, K. Nowaczyk, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Waveguide-modulated surface plasmon-coupled emission of Nile blue in poly(vinyl alcohol) thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 15–20 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, “Application of surface plasmon coupled emission to study of muscle,” Biophys. J. 91, 2626–2635 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 4. Experimental studies of surface plasmon-coupled directional emission,” Anal. Biochem. 324, 170–182 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional surface plasmon-coupled emission: a new method for high sensitivity detection,” Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435–439 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, “Application of surface plasmon coupled emission to study of muscle,” Biophys. J. 91, 2626–2635 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, K. Nowaczyk, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Waveguide-modulated surface plasmon-coupled emission of Nile blue in poly(vinyl alcohol) thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 15–20 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 4. Experimental studies of surface plasmon-coupled directional emission,” Anal. Biochem. 324, 170–182 (2004).
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J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional surface plasmon-coupled emission: a new method for high sensitivity detection,” Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435–439 (2003).
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A. S. Kristoffersen, S. R. Erga, B. Hamre, and Ø. Frette, “Testing fluorescence lifetime standards using two-photon excitation and time-domain instrumentation: Rhodamine B, coumarin 6 and lucifer yellow,”J. Fluorescence 24, 1015–1024 (2014).
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R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Comm. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
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M. Wallwiener, S. Riethdorf, A. D. Hartkopf, C. Modugno, J. Nees, D. Madhavan, M. R. Sprick, S. Schott, C. Domschke, I. Baccelli, B. Schönfisch, B. Burwinkel, F. Marmé, J. Heil, C. Sohn, K. Pantel, A. Trumpp, and A. Schneeweiss, “Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients,” BMC Cancer 14, 512 (2014).
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Heavens, O.

D. Gingell, O. Heavens, and J. Mellor, “General electromagnetic theory of total internal reflection fluorescence: The quantitative basis for mapping cell-substratum topography,” J. Cell Science 87, 677–693 (1987).
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G. M. Cook, M. Berney, S. Gebhard, M. Heinemann, R. A. Cox, O. Danilchanka, and M. Niederweis, “Physiology of mycobacteria,” Adv. Microb. Phys. 55, 81–182, 318–319 (2009).
[Crossref]

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A. Anantharam, B. Onoa, R. H. Edwards, R. W. Holz, and D. Axelrod, “Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized tirfm,” J. Cell Biology 188, 415–428 (2010).
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Q. Liu, S.-H. Cao, W.-P. Cai, X.-Q. Liu, Y.-H. Weng, K.-X. Xie, S.-X. Huo, and Y.-Q. Li, “Surface plasmon coupled emission in micrometer-scale cells: A leap from interface to bulk targets,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  119, 2921–2927 (2015).
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T. Yoshino, K. Takai, R. Negishi, T. Saeki, H. Kanbara, Y. Kikuhara, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Rapid imaging and detection of circulating tumor cells using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system,” Anal. Chimica Acta 969, 1–7 (2017).
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Knoll, W.

Koch, G.

C. Bruni, L. Ferrante, G. Koch, C. Scoglio, and G. Starace, “A stochastic model for cell debris in flow cytometry,” J. of Theoretical Biology 161, 157–174 (1993).
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R. M. Anthony, A. H. J. Kolk, S. Kuijper, and P. R. Klaster, “Light emitting diodes for auramine O fluorescence microscopic screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Int. J. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10, 1060–1062 (2006).

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A. S. Kristoffersen, S. R. Erga, B. Hamre, and Ø. Frette, “Testing fluorescence lifetime standards using two-photon excitation and time-domain instrumentation: Rhodamine B, coumarin 6 and lucifer yellow,”J. Fluorescence 24, 1015–1024 (2014).
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R. M. Anthony, A. H. J. Kolk, S. Kuijper, and P. R. Klaster, “Light emitting diodes for auramine O fluorescence microscopic screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Int. J. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10, 1060–1062 (2006).

Lakowicz, J. R.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, K. Nowaczyk, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Waveguide-modulated surface plasmon-coupled emission of Nile blue in poly(vinyl alcohol) thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 15–20 (2006).
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J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 3. Surface plasmon-coupled directional emission,” Aanal. Biochem. 324, 153–169 (2004).
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J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional surface plasmon-coupled emission: a new method for high sensitivity detection,” Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435–439 (2003).
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D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4, e6320 (2009).
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Lee, S.

J. P. Perez, N. Ybarra, F. Chagnon, M. Serban, S. Lee, J. Seuntjens, O. Lesur, and I. E. Naqa, “Tracking of mesenchymal stemcells with fluorescence endomicroscopy imaging in radiotherapy-induced lung injury,” Scientific Reports 7, 40748 (2017).
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Lesur, O.

J. P. Perez, N. Ybarra, F. Chagnon, M. Serban, S. Lee, J. Seuntjens, O. Lesur, and I. E. Naqa, “Tracking of mesenchymal stemcells with fluorescence endomicroscopy imaging in radiotherapy-induced lung injury,” Scientific Reports 7, 40748 (2017).
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Q. Liu, S.-H. Cao, W.-P. Cai, X.-Q. Liu, Y.-H. Weng, K.-X. Xie, S.-X. Huo, and Y.-Q. Li, “Surface plasmon coupled emission in micrometer-scale cells: A leap from interface to bulk targets,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  119, 2921–2927 (2015).
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P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
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P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-H. Lee, K.-B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y.L. Wang,“Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab on a Chip 16, 634–644 (2016).
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Q. Liu, S.-H. Cao, W.-P. Cai, X.-Q. Liu, Y.-H. Weng, K.-X. Xie, S.-X. Huo, and Y.-Q. Li, “Surface plasmon coupled emission in micrometer-scale cells: A leap from interface to bulk targets,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  119, 2921–2927 (2015).
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Q. Liu, S.-H. Cao, W.-P. Cai, X.-Q. Liu, Y.-H. Weng, K.-X. Xie, S.-X. Huo, and Y.-Q. Li, “Surface plasmon coupled emission in micrometer-scale cells: A leap from interface to bulk targets,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  119, 2921–2927 (2015).
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X.-M. Wan, R. Gao, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, “Self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering using plasmon waveguide resonance for surface and bulk sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 041906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C.F. Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maamari, R. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4, e6320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Wallwiener, S. Riethdorf, A. D. Hartkopf, C. Modugno, J. Nees, D. Madhavan, M. R. Sprick, S. Schott, C. Domschke, I. Baccelli, B. Schönfisch, B. Burwinkel, F. Marmé, J. Heil, C. Sohn, K. Pantel, A. Trumpp, and A. Schneeweiss, “Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients,” BMC Cancer 14, 512 (2014).
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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, K. Nowaczyk, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Waveguide-modulated surface plasmon-coupled emission of Nile blue in poly(vinyl alcohol) thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 15–20 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 4. Experimental studies of surface plasmon-coupled directional emission,” Anal. Biochem. 324, 170–182 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional surface plasmon-coupled emission: a new method for high sensitivity detection,” Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435–439 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of a cell on an SPCE slide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Near-field profiles in the x-y plane when the fluorophore is on the top of cell debris with the dipole oriented in the (a)–(d) x-direction, (e)–(h) y-direction, and (i)–(l) z-direction. Electric field components |Ex|2 are drawn in (a), (e), and (i); |Ey|2 are drawn in (b), (f), and (j); |Ez|2 are drawn in (c), (g), and (k); and |Ex|2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez|2 are drawn in (d), (h), and (l).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Near-field profiles in the x-z plane when the fluorophore is on the top of cell debris with the dipole oriented in the (a)–(d) x-direction, (e)–(h) y-direction, and (i)–(l) z-direction. Electric field components |Ex|2 are drawn in (a), (e), and (i); |Ey|2 are drawn in (b), (f), and (j); |Ez|2 are drawn in (c), (g), and (k); and |Ex |2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez|2 are drawn in (d), (h), and (l).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Far-field patterns for fluorescently-labeled cell debris when the fluorophore is (a) on the top and (b) at the bottom. Angle-resolved emission profiles for fluorescently-labeled cell debris when the fluorophore is (c) on the top and (d) at the bottom.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Near-field profiles in the x-y plane when the fluorophore is on the top of a whole cell with the dipole oriented in the (a)–(d) x-direction, (e)–(h) y-direction, and (i)–(l) z-direction. Electric field components |Ex|2 are drawn in (a), (e), and (i); |Ey|2 are drawn in (b), (f), and (j); |Ez|2 are drawn in (c), (g), and (k); and |Ex|2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez|2 are drawn in (d), (h), and (l).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Near-field profiles in the x-y plane when the fluorophore is on the bottom of a whole cell with the dipole oriented in the (a)–(d) x-direction, (e)–(h) y-direction, and (i)–(l) z-direction. Electric field components |Ex|2 are drawn in (a), (e), and (i); |Ey|2 are drawn in (b), (f), and (j); |Ez|2 are drawn in (c), (g), and (k); and |Ex|2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez|2 are drawn in (d), (h), and (l).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Near-field profiles in the x-z plane when the fluorophore is on the top of a whole cell with the dipole oriented in the (a)–(d) x-direction, (e)–(h) y-direction, and (i)–(l) z-direction. Electric field components |Ex|2 are drawn in (a), (e), and (i); |Ey|2 are drawn in (b), (f), and (j); |Ez|2 are drawn in (c), (g), and (k); and |Ex|2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez|2 are drawn in (d), (h), and (l).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Near-field profiles in the x-z plane when the fluorophore is at the bottom of a whole cell with the dipole oriented in the (a)–(d) x-direction, (e)–(h) y-direction, and (i)–(l) z-direction. Electric field components |Ex|2 are drawn in (a), (e), and (i); |Ey|2 are drawn in (b), (f), and (j); |Ez|2 are drawn in (c), (g), and (k); and |Ex|2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez 2 are drawn in (d), (h), and (l).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Near-field profiles of |Ex|2 + |Ey|2 + |Ez|2 on different cross-sections of a whole cell in the x-y planes when the fluorophore is on the top of the cell. The cross-sections are taken at (a) 50 nm, (b) 100 nm, and (d) 150 nm height within the cell.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Far-field patterns when the fluorophore is on the top of a whole cell with a height of (a) 300 nm, (b) 400 nm, and (c) 500 nm. Angle-resolved emission profile when the fluorophore is on the top of a whole cell with a height of (a) 300 nm, (b) 400 nm, and (c) 500 nm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Far-field patterns when the fluorophore is at the bottom of a whole cell with a height of (a) 300 nm, (b) 400 nm, and (c) 500 nm. Angle-resolved emission profile when the fluorophore is on the top of a whole cell with a height of (a) 300 nm, (b) 400 nm, and (c) 500 nm.

Equations (2)

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I = n ( | E x , n | 2 + | E y , n | 2 + | E z , n | 2 ) ,
I = | E x , b | 2 + | E x , t | 2 + | E y , b | 2 + | E y , t | 2 + | E z , b | 2 + | E z , t | 2 ,

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