Abstract

There is a critical need to identify patients with radiation-resistant tumors early after treatment commencement. In this study, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to investigate changes in vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration in A549 radiation-sensitive and resistant tumors treated with a clinically relevant dose fraction of 2 Gy. DRS spectra were acquired before, immediately after, 24, and 48 hours after radiation. Our data reveals a significantly higher reoxygenation (sO2) in the radiation-resistant tumors 24 and 48h after treatment, and provides promising evidence that DRS can discern between the reoxygenation trends of radiation-sensitive and resistant tumors.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  8. A. Ressel, C. Weiss, and T. Feyerabend, “Tumor oxygenation after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hyperthermia predicts tumor free survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49(4), 1119–1125 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  10. C. Grau and J. Overgaard, “The influence of radiation dose on the magnitude and kinetics of reoxygenation in a C3H mammary carcinoma,” Radiat. Res. 122(3), 309–315 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. L. Olive, “Radiation-induced reoxygenation in the SCCVII murine tumour: evidence for a decrease in oxygen consumption and an increase in tumour perfusion,” Radiother. Oncol. 32(1), 37–46 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
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  15. B. S. Nichols, N. Rajaram, and J. W. Tunnell, “Performance of a lookup table-based approach for measuring tissue optical properties with diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057001 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. Dadgar, J. R. Troncoso, and N. Rajaram, “Optical spectroscopic sensing of tumor hypoxia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(6), 1–6 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  24. E. K. Rofstad, P. DeMuth, B. M. Fenton, and R. M. Sutherland, “31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia,” Cancer Res. 48(19), 5440–5446 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  25. R. F. Kallman, “The phenomenon of reoxygenation and its implications for fractionated radiotherapy,” Radiology 105(1), 135–142 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  29. P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

S. Dadgar, J. R. Troncoso, and N. Rajaram, “Optical spectroscopic sensing of tumor hypoxia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(6), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. S. Nichols, N. Rajaram, and J. W. Tunnell, “Performance of a lookup table-based approach for measuring tissue optical properties with diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ressel, C. Weiss, and T. Feyerabend, “Tumor oxygenation after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hyperthermia predicts tumor free survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49(4), 1119–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

P. L. Olive, “Radiation-induced reoxygenation in the SCCVII murine tumour: evidence for a decrease in oxygen consumption and an increase in tumour perfusion,” Radiother. Oncol. 32(1), 37–46 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grau and J. Overgaard, “The influence of radiation dose on the magnitude and kinetics of reoxygenation in a C3H mammary carcinoma,” Radiat. Res. 122(3), 309–315 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Rofstad, P. DeMuth, B. M. Fenton, and R. M. Sutherland, “31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia,” Cancer Res. 48(19), 5440–5446 (1988).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

H. R. Withers, “The four r’s of radiotherapy,” Adv. Radiat. Biol. 5, 241–271 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. F. Kallman, “The phenomenon of reoxygenation and its implications for fractionated radiotherapy,” Radiology 105(1), 135–142 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfieri, A. A.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Alhallak, K.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansiaux, R.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aral, B.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bacic, G.

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

Balligand, J. L.

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudelet, C.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beghein, N.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bentzen, S. M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blitzer, G. C.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouzin, C.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brizel, D.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brizel, D. M.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broder, G. J.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brouet, A.

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, K.

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coia, L. R.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conradt, C.

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowburn, D.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Crokart, N.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dadgar, S.

S. Dadgar, J. R. Troncoso, and N. Rajaram, “Optical spectroscopic sensing of tumor hypoxia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(6), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeMuth, P.

E. K. Rofstad, P. DeMuth, B. M. Fenton, and R. M. Sutherland, “31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia,” Cancer Res. 48(19), 5440–5446 (1988).
[PubMed]

Dessy, C.

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devitt, M. L.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

DeWever, J.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietz, A.

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dings, R. P. M.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dollner, R.

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, J. F.

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

Dunst, J.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erkanli, A.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eschwege, F.

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, H. J.

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fenton, B. M.

E. K. Rofstad, P. DeMuth, B. M. Fenton, and R. M. Sutherland, “31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia,” Cancer Res. 48(19), 5440–5446 (1988).
[PubMed]

Feron, O.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feyerabend, T.

A. Ressel, C. Weiss, and T. Feyerabend, “Tumor oxygenation after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hyperthermia predicts tumor free survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49(4), 1119–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallez, B.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

Gatenby, R. A.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geradts, J.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goda, F.

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

Grau, C.

C. Grau and J. Overgaard, “The influence of radiation dose on the magnitude and kinetics of reoxygenation in a C3H mammary carcinoma,” Radiat. Res. 122(3), 309–315 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greene, N. P.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grégoire, V.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffin, R. J.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gross, J. F.

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guichard, M.

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gustafson, C.

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harari, P. M.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartz, W. H.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hockel, M.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hu, F.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunter, N. R.

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jenkins, S. V.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, B. F.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kallinowski, F.

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kallman, R. F.

R. F. Kallman, “The phenomenon of reoxygenation and its implications for fractionated radiotherapy,” Radiology 105(1), 135–142 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kessler, H. B.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kilger, A.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimple, R. J.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, D.

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kornblith, A. B.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Koutcher, J. A.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Lambert, P. F.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lartigau, E.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. E.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. T.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. Z.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loevner, L.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luboinski, B.

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lusinchi, A.

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lustig, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Mason, K. A.

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

Merchant, T. E.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Milas, L.

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

Milross, C. G.

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

Mitze, M.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Moldofsky, P. J.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molls, M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, B. S.

B. S. Nichols, N. Rajaram, and J. W. Tunnell, “Performance of a lookup table-based approach for measuring tissue optical properties with diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordsmark, M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. A.

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

Oleson, J. R.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olive, P. L.

P. L. Olive, “Radiation-induced reoxygenation in the SCCVII murine tumour: evidence for a decrease in oxygen consumption and an increase in tumour perfusion,” Radiother. Oncol. 32(1), 37–46 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliver, R.

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Overgaard, J.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grau and J. Overgaard, “The influence of radiation dose on the magnitude and kinetics of reoxygenation in a C3H mammary carcinoma,” Radiat. Res. 122(3), 309–315 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peters, L. J.

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

Peterson, B.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prosnitz, L. R.

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinn, K. P.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quon, H.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dadgar, J. R. Troncoso, and N. Rajaram, “Optical spectroscopic sensing of tumor hypoxia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(6), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Nichols, N. Rajaram, and J. W. Tunnell, “Performance of a lookup table-based approach for measuring tissue optical properties with diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ressel, A.

A. Ressel, C. Weiss, and T. Feyerabend, “Tumor oxygenation after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hyperthermia predicts tumor free survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49(4), 1119–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, J. G.

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
[PubMed]

Rofstad, E. K.

E. K. Rofstad, P. DeMuth, B. M. Fenton, and R. M. Sutherland, “31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia,” Cancer Res. 48(19), 5440–5446 (1988).
[PubMed]

Rosenblum, J. S.

R. A. Gatenby, H. B. Kessler, J. S. Rosenblum, L. R. Coia, P. J. Moldofsky, W. H. Hartz, and G. J. Broder, “Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 14(5), 831–838 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudat, V.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saha, S.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

L. Milas, N. R. Hunter, K. A. Mason, C. G. Milross, Y. Saito, and L. J. Peters, “Role of reoxygenation in induction of enhancement of tumor radioresponse by paclitaxel,” Cancer Res. 55(16), 3564–3568 (1995).
[PubMed]

Salama, J. K.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, U.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Scher, R. L.

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlenger, K.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Schroeder, T.

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Secomb, T.

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibley, G. S.

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonveaux, P.

N. Crokart, B. F. Jordan, C. Baudelet, R. Ansiaux, P. Sonveaux, V. Grégoire, N. Beghein, J. DeWever, C. Bouzin, O. Feron, and B. Gallez, “Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63(3), 901–910 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sonveaux, C. Dessy, A. Brouet, B. F. Jordan, V. Grégoire, B. Gallez, J. L. Balligand, and O. Feron, “Modulation of the tumor vasculature functionality by ionizing radiation accounts for tumor radiosensitization and promotes gene delivery,” FASEB J. 16(14), 1979–1981 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stadler, P.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, A. P.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sunar, U.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. M.

E. K. Rofstad, P. DeMuth, B. M. Fenton, and R. M. Sutherland, “31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia,” Cancer Res. 48(19), 5440–5446 (1988).
[PubMed]

Swartz, H. M.

F. Goda, G. Bacic, J. A. O’Hara, B. Gallez, H. M. Swartz, and J. F. Dunn, “The relationship between partial pressure of oxygen and perfusion in two murine tumors after X-ray irradiation: a combined gadopentetate dimeglumine dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Cancer Res. 56(14), 3344–3349 (1996).
[PubMed]

Swick, A. D.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terris, D. J.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Troncoso, J. R.

S. Dadgar, J. R. Troncoso, and N. Rajaram, “Optical spectroscopic sensing of tumor hypoxia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(6), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tso, C. Y.

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

B. S. Nichols, N. Rajaram, and J. W. Tunnell, “Performance of a lookup table-based approach for measuring tissue optical properties with diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanselow, B.

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vargas, I.

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaupel, P.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Viola, R. J.

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
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K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wannenmacher, M.

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weeger, P.

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weidauer, H.

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, C.

A. Ressel, C. Weiss, and T. Feyerabend, “Tumor oxygenation after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hyperthermia predicts tumor free survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 49(4), 1119–1125 (2001).
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Wibault, P.

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. R. Withers, “The four r’s of radiotherapy,” Adv. Radiat. Biol. 5, 241–271 (1975).
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Yang, R. Z.

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yarmolenko, P. S.

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Radiat. Biol. (1)

H. R. Withers, “The four r’s of radiotherapy,” Adv. Radiat. Biol. 5, 241–271 (1975).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cancer Med. (1)

A. P. Stein, A. D. Swick, M. A. Smith, G. C. Blitzer, R. Z. Yang, S. Saha, P. M. Harari, P. F. Lambert, C. Z. Liu, and R. J. Kimple, “Xenograft assessment of predictive biomarkers for standard head and neck cancer therapies,” Cancer Med. 4(5), 699–712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (6)

J. A. Koutcher, A. A. Alfieri, M. L. Devitt, J. G. Rhee, A. B. Kornblith, U. Mahmood, T. E. Merchant, and D. Cowburn, “Quantitative changes in tumor metabolism, partial pressure of oxygen, and radiobiological oxygenation status postradiation,” Cancer Res. 52(17), 4620–4627 (1992).
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J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56(19), 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

E. Lartigau, A. Lusinchi, P. Weeger, P. Wibault, B. Luboinski, F. Eschwege, and M. Guichard, “Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(6), 856–861 (1998).
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Head Neck (1)

A. Dietz, B. Vanselow, V. Rudat, C. Conradt, H. Weidauer, F. Kallinowski, and R. Dollner, “Prognostic impact of reoxygenation in advanced cancer of the head and neck during the initial course of chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone,” Head Neck 25(1), 50–58 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (6)

F. Hu, K. Vishwanath, J. K. Salama, A. Erkanli, B. Peterson, J. R. Oleson, W. T. Lee, D. M. Brizel, N. Ramanujam, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Oxygen and perfusion kinetics in response to fractionated radiation therapy in FaDu head and neck cancer xenografts are related to treatment outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 96(2), 462–469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Brizel, G. S. Sibley, L. R. Prosnitz, R. L. Scher, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 38(2), 285–289 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Dewhirst, R. Oliver, C. Y. Tso, C. Gustafson, T. Secomb, and J. F. Gross, “Heterogeneity in tumor microvascular response to radiation,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 18(3), 559–568 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064021 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Rajaram, T. H. Nguyen, and J. W. Tunnell, “Lookup table-based inverse model for determining optical properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Nichols, N. Rajaram, and J. W. Tunnell, “Performance of a lookup table-based approach for measuring tissue optical properties with diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dadgar, J. R. Troncoso, and N. Rajaram, “Optical spectroscopic sensing of tumor hypoxia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(6), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, R. J. Viola, T. Schroeder, P. S. Yarmolenko, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy: tool to monitor tumor physiology in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath, D. Klein, K. Chang, T. Schroeder, M. W. Dewhirst, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy can identify long-term local tumor control in irradiated murine head and neck xenografts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, D. E. Lee, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, “Prognostic value of tumor oxygenation in 397 head and neck tumors after primary radiation therapy. An international multi-center study,” Radiother. Oncol. 77(1), 18–24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. E. Lee, K. Alhallak, S. V. Jenkins, I. Vargas, N. P. Greene, K. P. Quinn, R. J. Griffin, R. P. M. Dings, and N. Rajaram, “A radiosensitizing inhibitor of HIF-1 alters the optical redox state of human lung cancer cells in vitro,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8815 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strahlenther. Onkol. (1)

V. Rudat, P. Stadler, A. Becker, B. Vanselow, A. Dietz, M. Wannenmacher, M. Molls, J. Dunst, and H. J. Feldmann, “Predictive value of the tumor oxygenation by means of pO2 histography in patients with advanced head and neck cancer,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 177(9), 462–468 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Timeline for study design. Red time points indicate days of radiation administration at a dose of 2 Gy. DRS spectra were collected before and after each radiation dose. The blue time points indicate collection of DRS spectra during the course of radiation therapy, and after radiation therapy on days 11-14.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental DRS setup shows fiber optic probe, spectrometer, light source, and reflectance standard (b) Optical probe design with source-detector separation of 2.25mm. (c) DRS spectra and respective LUT-fits from 3 representative tissue-simulating phantoms with varying levels of scattering and absorption. (d) and (e) Scatter plots of known versus measured values of µa and µs’, where solid line indicates perfect agreement.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Representative in vivo DRS spectra and absorption spectra prior to radiation (0h), 24 hours post-radiation, and 48 hours post-radiation. Spectra collected from A549 parental tumors (a,c) and rA549 radiation-resistant tumors (b,d). The measured diffuse reflectance and absorption are presented as symbols and the solid lines indicate the LUT model fit.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Changes in vascular oxygenation and THb across all four doses of radiation for both radiation-sensitive (a,c) and resistant tumors (b,d). Each radiation dose presents the mean sO2 and THb values for the following time points: 0h, immediately after, 24h, and 48h post radiation. Data shown as mean ± SEM. * indicates p<0.05 and ** p<0.01.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Short term changes in vascular oxygenation (a, b) and THb (c,d) before, immediately after, 24 hours, and 48h post radiation for all four groups. Data shown as mean ± SEM. * indicates p < 0.05, ** p< 0.01, *** p< 0.001.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Short term changes in oxygenated (HbO2) (a,b) and deoxygenated (dHb) (c,d) hemoglobin before, immediately after, 24 hours, and 48h post radiation for all four groups. Data shown as mean ± SEM. * indicates p < 0.05.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Tumor distribution among control and experimental groups

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