Abstract

The human retina is typically imaged in a reflection geometry, where light is delivered through the pupil and images are formed from the light reflected back from the retina. In this configuration, artifacts caused by retinal surface reflex are often encountered, which complicate quantitative interpretation of the reflection images. We present an alternative illumination method, which avoids these artifacts. The method uses deeply penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light delivered transcranially from the side of the head, and exploits multiple scattering to redirect a portion of the light towards the posterior eye. This unique transmission geometry simplifies absorption measurements and enables flash-free, non-mydriatic imaging as deep as the choroid. Images taken with this new transillumination approach are applied to retinal oximetry.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry with visible-light optical coherence tomography

Shaohua Pi, Acner Camino, William Cepurna, Xiang Wei, Miao Zhang, David Huang, John Morrison, and Yali Jia
Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5) 2056-2067 (2018)

Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited]

Siyu Chen, Xiao Shu, Peter L. Nesper, Wenzhong Liu, Amani A. Fawzi, and Hao F. Zhang
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3) 1415-1429 (2017)

Visible-light optical coherence tomography oximetry based on circumpapillary scan and graph-search segmentation

Brian T. Soetikno, Lisa Beckmann, Xian Zhang, Amani A. Fawzi, and Hao F. Zhang
Biomed. Opt. Express 9(8) 3640-3652 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).
  5. J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2537–2549 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. R. Novotny and D. L. Alvis, “A Method of Photographing Fluorescence in Circulating Blood in the Human Retina,” Circulation 24, 82–86 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T. T. J. M. Berendschot, P. J. DeLint, and D. van Norren, “Fundus reflectance—historical and present ideas,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 171–200 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  14. L. E. MacKenzie and A. R. Harvey, “Oximetry using multispectral imaging: theory and application,” J. Opt. 20, 063501 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1796–1798 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, “A Study of Retinal Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation in Human Subjects by Photographic Means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041302 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. ANSI, “American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers” ANSI Z136.1-2014 (Laser Institute of America, 2014).
  31. F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. S. L. Jacques, “Melanosome absorption coefficient,” (1998). https://omlc.org/spectra/melanin/mua.html
  34. S. Prahl, “Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin,” (1998). https://omlc.org/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html
  35. B. S. Reddy and B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-Based Technique for Translation, Rotation, and Scale-Invariant Image Registration,” IEEE Transactions on Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33, 156–158 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410–7418 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  38. D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
  39. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared Imaging of Sub-retinal Structures in the Human Ocular Fundus,” Vis. Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. F. C. Delori, “Noninvasive technique for oximetry of blood in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1113–1125 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  42. D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 1415–1429 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  45. N. M. Anderson and P. Sekelj, “Light-absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Medicine Biol. 12, 173–184 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  46. R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146, 496–500 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. D. A. Roberts, “Analysis of vessel absorption profiles in retinal oximetry,” Med. Phys. 14, 124–130 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

L. E. MacKenzie and A. R. Harvey, “Oximetry using multispectral imaging: theory and application,” J. Opt. 20, 063501 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146, 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33, 156–158 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, P. J. DeLint, and D. van Norren, “Fundus reflectance—historical and present ideas,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 171–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared Imaging of Sub-retinal Structures in the Human Ocular Fundus,” Vis. Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Reddy and B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-Based Technique for Translation, Rotation, and Scale-Invariant Image Registration,” IEEE Transactions on Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

D. A. Roberts, “Analysis of vessel absorption profiles in retinal oximetry,” Med. Phys. 14, 124–130 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

1977 (1)

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

N. M. Anderson and P. Sekelj, “Light-absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Medicine Biol. 12, 173–184 (1967).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, “A Study of Retinal Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation in Human Subjects by Photographic Means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

H. R. Novotny and D. L. Alvis, “A Method of Photographing Fluorescence in Circulating Blood in the Human Retina,” Circulation 24, 82–86 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Abboud, I.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvis, D. L.

H. R. Novotny and D. L. Alvis, “A Method of Photographing Fluorescence in Circulating Blood in the Human Retina,” Circulation 24, 82–86 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, N. M.

N. M. Anderson and P. Sekelj, “Light-absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Medicine Biol. 12, 173–184 (1967).
[Crossref]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Backman, V.

Basavanthappa, S.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basit, S.

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beach, J.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beach, J. M.

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudry, N.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benediktsson, J. A.

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, P. J. DeLint, and D. van Norren, “Fundus reflectance—historical and present ideas,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 171–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumer, K.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brooks, D. H.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brown, P. K.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Bui, B. V.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burns, S. A.

Chan, G.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatterji, B. N.

B. S. Reddy and B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-Based Technique for Translation, Rotation, and Scale-Invariant Image Registration,” IEEE Transactions on Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chipman, R. A.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, K. K.

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y. P.

Corrado, G. S.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Currier, N.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Kock, J. P.

J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
[Crossref]

DeLint, P. J.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, P. J. DeLint, and D. van Norren, “Fundus reflectance—historical and present ideas,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 171–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared Imaging of Sub-retinal Structures in the Human Ocular Fundus,” Vis. Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, “Noninvasive technique for oximetry of blood in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1113–1125 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denninghoff, K. R.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimarzio, C. A.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dinn, R. B.

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
[PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Einarsdottir, A. B.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Elsner, A. E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared Imaging of Sub-retinal Structures in the Human Ocular Fundus,” Vis. Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eskandari, M.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eysteinsson, T.

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fawzi, A. A.

Fienup, J. R.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, T. N.

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francisco, R.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frayser, R.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, “A Study of Retinal Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation in Human Subjects by Photographic Means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudette, R. J.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glynn, C. J.

J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gorman, A.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gragoudas, E. S.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerry, D.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Halldorsson, G. H.

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ham, W. T.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, H.

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410–7418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hannesdottir, K. H.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Hardarson, S. H.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harris, A.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
[PubMed]

Harvey, A. R.

L. E. MacKenzie and A. R. Harvey, “Oximetry using multispectral imaging: theory and application,” J. Opt. 20, 063501 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Z.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hickam, J. B.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, “A Study of Retinal Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation in Human Subjects by Photographic Means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, A. R.

J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, P. K.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jonsdottir, K. D.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Jonsdottir, T. E.

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kagemann, L.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
[PubMed]

Karlsson, R. A.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kilmer, M.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koizumi, H.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146, 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolb, A.

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410–7418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Königsdörffer, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kraft, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, Q. X.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. K. H.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

MacKenzie, L. E.

L. E. MacKenzie and A. R. Harvey, “Oximetry using multispectral imaging: theory and application,” J. Opt. 20, 063501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mahadevan, V.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
[Crossref]

McConnell, M. V.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

McNaught, A. I.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, B.

Miller, E. L.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mordant, D. J.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullen, J.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Muyo, G.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narasimha-Iyer, H.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nesper, P. L.

Nguyen, C. T. O.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Novotny, H. R.

H. R. Novotny and D. L. Alvis, “A Method of Photographing Fluorescence in Circulating Blood in the Human Retina,” Circulation 24, 82–86 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olafsdottir, O. B.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Park, R. I.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pflibsen, K. P.

Pogue, B. W.

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poplin, R.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pournaras, C. J.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pozonni, M. C.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146, 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruett, R. C.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rechtman, E.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
[PubMed]

Reddy, B. S.

B. S. Reddy and B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-Based Technique for Translation, Rotation, and Scale-Invariant Image Registration,” IEEE Transactions on Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[Crossref]

Riemer, T.

M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritchie, P.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, “Analysis of vessel absorption profiles in retinal oximetry,” Med. Phys. 14, 124–130 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romano, A.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ross, J. C.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, “A Study of Retinal Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation in Human Subjects by Photographic Means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roysam, B.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rungger-Brändle, E.

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saevarsdottir, H. S.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Sallam, A.

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salyer, D. A.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F. H.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410–7418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schwenzer, K. J.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekelj, P.

N. M. Anderson and P. Sekelj, “Light-absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Medicine Biol. 12, 173–184 (1967).
[Crossref]

Shu, X.

Sliney, D. H.

Snaedal, J.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Snodderly, D. M.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Sonka, M.

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146, 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stefansson, E.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stefánsson, E.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strobel, J.

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarassenko, L.

J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
[Crossref]

Thamm, E.

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410–7418 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thorsteinsson, A.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thurman, S. T.

Tiedeman, J. S.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiemeijer, L. F.

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traustadottir, V. D.

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Twietmeyer, K.

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, P. J. DeLint, and D. van Norren, “Fundus reflectance—historical and present ideas,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 171–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanNasdale, D. A.

Varadarajan, A. V.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vilser, W.

M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vingrys, A. J.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Waheed, N. K.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Webb, R. H.

Webster, D. R.

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q.

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared Imaging of Sub-retinal Structures in the Human Ocular Fundus,” Vis. Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. C.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, V. H. Y.

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yi, J.

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, Q.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zoega, G. M.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. (1)

O. B. Olafsdottir, H. S. Saevarsdottir, S. H. Hardarson, K. H. Hannesdottir, V. D. Traustadottir, R. A. Karlsson, A. B. Einarsdottir, K. D. Jonsdottir, E. Stefansson, and J. Snaedal, “Retinal oxygen metabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagn. Assess. & Dis. Monit. 10340–345 (2018).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozonni, “Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146, 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic Ophthalmoscopy and Fundus Photography: The Normal Fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, and F. H. Schmidt, “The Loss of Light Energy in Retina and Choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 606–615 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Circulation (2)

H. R. Novotny and D. L. Alvis, “A Method of Photographing Fluorescence in Circulating Blood in the Human Retina,” Circulation 24, 82–86 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, “A Study of Retinal Venous Blood Oxygen Saturation in Human Subjects by Photographic Means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

D. A. Salyer, N. Beaudry, S. Basavanthappa, K. Twietmeyer, M. Eskandari, K. R. Denninghoff, R. A. Chipman, and R. I. Park, “Retinal Oximetry Using Intravitreal Illumination,” Curr. Eye Res. 31, 617–627 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (1)

D. J. Mordant, I. Al-Abboud, G. Muyo, A. Gorman, A. Sallam, P. Ritchie, A. R. Harvey, and A. I. McNaught, “Spectral imaging of the retina,” Eye 25, 309–320 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Neurosci. (1)

J. K. H. Lim, Q. X. Li, Z. He, A. J. Vingrys, V. H. Y. Wong, N. Currier, J. Mullen, B. V. Bui, and C. T. O. Nguyen, “The Eye As a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease,” Front. Neurosci. 10, 536 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, “Imaging the Body with Diffuse Optical Tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. (2)

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In Vivo Measurement of the Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in Healthy Volunteers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454–1465 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. P. de Kock, L. Tarassenko, C. J. Glynn, and A. R. Hill, “Reflectance Pulse Oximetry Measurements from the Retinal Fundus,” IEEE Transactions on Biomed. Eng. 40, 817–823 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Image Process. (1)

B. S. Reddy and B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-Based Technique for Translation, Rotation, and Scale-Invariant Image Registration,” IEEE Transactions on Image Process. 5, 1266–1271 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. (1)

H. Narasimha-Iyer, V. Mahadevan, J. M. Beach, and B. Roysam, “Improved Detection of the Central Reflex in Retinal Vessels Using a Generalized Dual-Gaussian Model and Robust Hypothesis Testing,” IEEE Transactions on Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 406–410 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Retin. Vitreous (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retin. Vitreous 1, 5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, and J. Strobel, “Scattering properties of the retina and the choroids determined from OCT-A-scans,” Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 291–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. (2)

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefánsson, “Automatic Retinal Oximetry,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The Macular Pigment. I. Absorbance Spectra, Localization, and Discrimination from Other Yellow Pigments in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. (1)

S. H. Hardarson, S. Basit, T. E. Jonsdottir, T. Eysteinsson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, J. M. Beach, J. A. Benediktsson, and E. Stefansson, “Oxygen Saturation in Human Retinal Vessels Is Higher in Dark Than in Light,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 50, 2308–2311 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Hammer, W. Vilser, T. Riemer, and D. Schweitzer, “Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

L. E. MacKenzie and A. R. Harvey, “Oximetry using multispectral imaging: theory and application,” J. Opt. 20, 063501 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

D. A. Roberts, “Analysis of vessel absorption profiles in retinal oximetry,” Med. Phys. 14, 124–130 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biomed. Eng. (1)

R. Poplin, A. V. Varadarajan, K. Blumer, Y. Liu, M. V. McConnell, G. S. Corrado, L. Peng, and D. R. Webster, “Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2, 158–164 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. methods (1)

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

A. Harris, R. B. Dinn, L. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, “A Review of Methods for Human Retinal Oximetry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152–164 (2003).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Medicine Biol. (1)

N. M. Anderson and P. Sekelj, “Light-absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Medicine Biol. 12, 173–184 (1967).
[Crossref]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (3)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, P. J. DeLint, and D. van Norren, “Fundus reflectance—historical and present ideas,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 171–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Pournaras, E. Rungger-Brändle, C. E. Riva, S. H. Hardarson, and E. Stefansson, “Regulation of retinal blood flow in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 284–330 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vis. Res. (2)

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, “Infrared Imaging of Sub-retinal Structures in the Human Ocular Fundus,” Vis. Res. 36, 191–205 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. L. Jacques, “Melanosome absorption coefficient,” (1998). https://omlc.org/spectra/melanin/mua.html

S. Prahl, “Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin,” (1998). https://omlc.org/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html

ANSI, “American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers” ANSI Z136.1-2014 (Laser Institute of America, 2014).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A: Schematic of fundus transillumination and imaging. LEDs at several central wavelengths (λN) are imaged via coupling optics (CO), comprised of lenses f1 and f2, onto the proximal end of a flexible fiber bundle (FB). A commerical fundus camera (FC) images the transilluminated fundus onto a camera (CCD). B: Example raw image recorded on the CCD. C: Normalized measured spectra of available high-power deep red and NIR LEDs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Registration and averaging. A: Single frame from 850 nm LED image series (10 Hz acquisition). B: Magnified view of highlighted region in A. Black/white levels are scaled to the region’s min/max values. C: 194-frame average improves SNR, revealing previously undetectable small features (arrowheads in B & C). D: Detected translation (green: X, magenta: Y) and rotation (cyan) for 256-frame series. Motion-corrupted frames (red-background) are excluded from averaging. E: Profiles for lines drawn in B & C, demonstrating SNR improvement. (rms diff.: Root-mean-square pixel to pixel difference)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Left eye from a 59-year-old healthy subject. A–D: Relative absorbance calculation with 850 nm transillumination (refer to text for details). Yellow circle indicates size of the local maximum filter kernel relative the image. E & F: Effect of changing local maximum filter kernel radius (zoomed region of D). A smaller radius emphasizes sharp changes in absorbance, revealing mottled pigmentation density fluctuations. Larger kernels emphasize larger features such as vessels in the choroid.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A–E: Multispectral relative absorbance images. Brightness has been autoscaled for clarity. F: 660 and 850 nm images overlaid in false-color for comparison. Vortex veins are readily observed in the top right and bottom right fields of 850 and 940 nm images.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A: The absorption spectra for the three dominant NIR chromophores of the eye. Gray background indicates available LED channel. B: Oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and Hb) distributions based on absorption spectra in A and non-negative least squares spectral unmixing, using 660-850nm relative absorbance images. Hemoglobin spectra obtained from Ref. [34] and average melanin slope from [33]. (*Melanin spectrum scaled to permit comparison with hemoglobin. Units do not apply.)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Retinal oximetry in fundus of the left eye of a normal volunteer. Input data is spectrally unmixed HbO2 and Hb relative absorbance images using the psuedo-inverse solution. A: Processing workflow leading to background-corrected vessel chromophore maps (refer to text for explanation). B: Pseudocolor overlay of oxygen percent saturation (SO2) in major retinal vessels.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LED choices (with Thorlabs product number), associated ANSI maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for skin and retina, and measured or estimated irradiance. Retinal MPE is converted from ANSI ocular exposure MPE. Estimation is based on received light power on the camera (see text for details).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Quantified retinal oximetry results (% oxygen saturation, SO2) in regional quadrants and across the whole fundus shown in Fig. 6 (temporal: right, superior: top).

Metrics