The electromagnetic momentum and its flow in dielectric waveguides is investigated. Expressions for momentum and momentum flow in terms of the fields of the waveguide modes are derived, allowing for dispersion and anisotropy of the dielectric medium. A slowly-varying-envelope approach is used to obtain a complex momentum theorem from Maxwell’s equations. Simple relations between the momentum quantities, the phase and group velocities of the guide, and the energy and energy flow in the guide are established. A simple mechanical model is described which allows a physical interpretation of the energy and momentum expressions in the presence of medium dispersion.
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