Abstract

Tight focusing of various beams is widely used for microscopy, optical tweezers, lithography, optical storage, etc. In literature, the investigation of the tightly focused spot is very often based on an ideal lens, which is aplanatic, by the Debye–Wolf integral. In this work, we formulate the aplanatic lens by interpreting the Gaussian reference sphere as a fictitious surface. In this manner, the formulation of an ideal lens is analogous to the one of a real lens by local plane interface approximation, which is well known. It is straightforward to interpret. And furthermore, we compare the tight focusing of differently polarized beams via ideal and real lenses with circular and annular apertures. We find the focal spot by a well-designed real lens is in good agreement with that of the ideal lens in the case of perfect alignment. But the appearance of misalignment distorts the focal spot. The deformed focal spot is more sensitive in the case of the annular aperture compared with the circular aperture. It is in good agreement with the experimental results in literature. An investigation of the tolerance of misalignment of a specific lens system is also performed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Tight focusing of vortex beams in presence of primary astigmatism

Rakesh Kumar Singh, P. Senthilkumaran, and Kehar Singh
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(3) 576-588 (2009)

Effect of radial polarization and apodization on spot size under tight focusing conditions

Gilad M. Lerman and Uriel Levy
Opt. Express 16(7) 4567-4581 (2008)

Comparison of exact and asymptotic results for the focusing of electromagnetic waves through a plane interface

Velauthapillai Dhayalan and Jakob J. Stamnes
Appl. Opt. 39(34) 6332-6340 (2000)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (11)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (54)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription