Abstract

This paper provides a tutorial of iterative phase retrieval algorithms based on the Gerchberg–Saxton (GS) algorithm applied in digital holography. In addition, a novel GS-based algorithm that allows reconstruction of 3D samples is demonstrated. The GS-based algorithms recover complex-valued wavefront-by-wavefront back-and-forth propagation between two planes with constraints superimposed in these two planes. Iterative phase retrieval allows quantitatively correct and twin-image-free reconstructions of object amplitude and phase distributions from its in-line hologram. The present work derives the quantitative criteria on how many holograms are required to reconstruct a complex-valued object distribution, be it a 2D or 3D sample. It is shown that for a sample that can be approximated as a 2D sample, a single-shot in-line hologram is sufficient to reconstruct the absorption and phase distributions of the sample. Previously, the GS-based algorithms have been successfully employed to reconstruct samples that are limited to a 2D plane. However, realistic physical objects always have some finite thickness and therefore are 3D rather than 2D objects. This study demonstrates that 3D samples, including 3D phase objects, can be reconstructed from two or more holograms. It is shown that in principle, two holograms are sufficient to recover the entire wavefront diffracted by a 3D sample distribution. In this method, the reconstruction is performed by applying iterative phase retrieval between the planes where intensity was measured. The recovered complex-valued wavefront is then propagated back to the sample planes, thus reconstructing the 3D distribution of the sample. This method can be applied for 3D samples such as 3D distribution of particles, thick biological samples, and other 3D phase objects. Examples of reconstructions of 3D objects, including phase objects, are provided. Resolution enhancement obtained by iterative extrapolation of holograms is also discussed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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