Abstract

This work presents a detailed analytic approach to the diffraction of vortex beams from 2D orthogonal periodic structures. Using the presented formulation, the diffraction of vortex beams from 2D sinusoidal and Ronchi gratings is investigated. For these gratings, the Talbot self-healing effect under vortex beam illumination is examined. In the illumination of a 2D grating with a vortex beam, we refer the Talbot self-healing effect to the filling of the null area of the incident beam under propagation. We show that, for an incident vortex beam having odd value of topological charge, the generated Talbot self-images over the self-healing area are a 2D array of optical vortices, in which each of the individual self-images gets the form of an optical vortex with a topological charge of l=1 regardless of the topological charge of the incident beam. Both the Talbot self-healing effect and generation of the 2D array of optical vortices occur optimally between a definite interval of propagation distance. Using an intuitive approach based on the interference of the diffracted orders of the grating, we determine the self-healing interval. We show that a 2D array of optical vortices can be generated directly in the interference of eight copies of a vortex beam having proper lateral shifts and relative tilts. Easy tuning and energy preservation are two main advantages that the interference-based method has over the above-mentioned diffraction-based method for generating a 2D array of optical vortices. However, setup and implementation of the diffraction-based method are very simple. We believe that both the diffraction-based and interference-based methods for creating vortex beam arrays might find applications in optical tweezers, micromanipulations, and microfluidics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Visualization 1 shows quarter part of the diffracted intensity pattern from a 2D sinusoidal grating with p = 0.1 mm illuminated by a vortex beam with w = 1 mm and l = 5 at different propagation distances.
» Visualization 2       Visualization 2 shows an inset around optical axis form the diffracted intensity pattern of a 2D sinusoidal grating with p = 0.1 mm under vortex beam illumination having w = 1 mm and l = 5.
» Visualization 3       Visualization 3 shows the phase pattern of the diffracted beam around optical axis when a 2D sinusoidal grating with p = 0.1 mm illuminated by a vortex beam having w = 1 mm and l = 5.

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