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Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Effect of Nonlocal Metal-Dielectric Environments on Concentration Quenching of HITC dye

Srujana Prayakarao, Samantha Koutsares, Carl Bonner, and Mikhail Noginov

Doc ID: 374864 Received 06 Aug 2019; Accepted 22 Oct 2019; Posted 22 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: : Understanding and harnessing energy transfer in organic and inorganic systems is of high fundamental and practical importance. In this work, we have experimentally studied the effect of lamellar hyperbolic metamaterials and metal/dielectric interfaces on the concentration-dependent luminescence quenching in thin polymeric poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films doped with HITC dye molecules. The rate of the concentration quenching (energy transfer to quenching centers) was found to be approximately proportional to the square of the dye concentration. The concentration quenching was strongly inhibited in the vicinity of metallic films and lamellar metal-dielectric metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. The characteristic length-scale of the inhibition (the distance between the dye molecules and the metallic surface, at which the inhibition becomes significant) was found to be ~47 nm. It was much longer than the Förster radius (the characteristic distance of the donor-acceptor energy transfer, 5 nm to 7 nm), and smaller than the penetration of the surface plasmon polariton field to the dielectric (≥250 nm). The explanation of the observed phenomenon is likely to be sought in terms of a model taking into account coupling of donor and acceptor ensembles to surface plasmons and, through coupling with plasmons, to each other.

Global modeling of terahertz plasmonic HEMT using complete multi-physics hydrodynamic model

Farzaneh Daneshmandian, Abdolali Abdipour, and Amir Nader Askarpour

Doc ID: 375868 Received 22 Aug 2019; Accepted 21 Oct 2019; Posted 21 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The global modeling of an unbiased/biased ungated HEMT is presented. The complete hydrodynamic model is employed for the full wave analysis of the structure, using the finite difference time domain numerical method. This model is based on the first three moments of the Boltzmann transport equation combined with the Maxwell’s equations. Using the three moments of the transport equation, in contrast to the usual first two moments, allows us to take into account the variation of the transport parameters with the energy and the temperature. Therefore, the complete characteristics of the plasmons propagation along the ungated HEMT channel for low and high-field conditions are achieved. Moreover, by applying this model to a metallic grating gate HEMT as a tunable resonant detector, the transmission spectra are obtained for various temperatures and electron densities for low and high-field conditions. The results show the characteristics of the surface plasmons propagation are highly influenced by the excitation field level and accordingly causes transport parameters variations which can be described completely by our developed model.

Polarization Dependence of Interferences inside Rb Atomic Vapor Governing Microwave Vector E-field Metrology

Harish Rawat, Satya Dubey, and Vijay Ojha

Doc ID: 369324 Received 04 Jun 2019; Accepted 21 Oct 2019; Posted 21 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Atom-based metrology technique has been accepted widely because of SI traceability and dependence only on the physical constants rather than on any artefact. The presented work explains the dependence of the probe absorption on the polarization of the driving fields in the new atom-based spectroscopic technique for microwave electrometry. This work explains the nature of decays between different pathways when the fields are not only π or σ polarized but also at an arbitrary angle between the two orientations. It has been shown that when any of the lasers is linearly polarized at an arbitrary angle 0<θ_(p,c)<±π/2 to the quantization axis, the observation of the absorption from a correct direction becomes extremely important. The findings in this work can be utilized in the correct determination of the polarization of incident microwave field along with the E-field amplitude measurement. Further, a challenge has been discussed when RF field is weak and cannot give the distinguished separation in the absorption peak. It has been shown that the sensitivity of the sensor can be increased in this case by detuning RF from the on-resonance frequency.

Raman peak shifts due to walk-off in noninstantaneous Kerr media with higher order effects

Soumo Tchio Michel-Rostand, Abdoulkary Saïdou, and Mohamadou Alidou

Doc ID: 371878 Received 11 Jul 2019; Accepted 21 Oct 2019; Posted 21 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We study analytically and numerically the modulation instability oftwo incoherently co-propagating optical pulses in a nonlinear fibertaking into account high order nonlinearity, walk-off effects, delayresponse time as well as cross-phase modulation in severaldispersion regimes. We analyze in detail the interplay betweeninstantaneous and noninstantaneous Kerr response introduced througha Debye relaxation process, for each case. We show that thehigher-order nonlinearity is responsible of superposition of thesecondary MI spectrum and considerably grows the magnitude of thegain as well as the sidebands band and give rise to new bands. Werealize that there is a peak located in the emerged Raman band thatwe called "Raman peak" due to the combined effects of third orderdispersion and delay response time as well as the opposite sign offourth order dispersion parameter. We show that these emerged Ramanand sporadic peaks are shifted toward higher frequencies when thewalk-off increases. We provide detailed comparisons between eachcase to what has been carried out before.

Nonlinear rovibrational response in the propagation of long-wavelength infrared pulses and pulse trains

Phil Rosenow, Paris Panagiotopoulos, Miroslav Kolesik, Stephan Koch, and Jerome Moloney

Doc ID: 375147 Received 12 Aug 2019; Accepted 20 Oct 2019; Posted 21 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The propagation of long-wavelength pulses is affected by a multitude of near-resonant rovibrational transitions in atmospheric constituents, of which water vapor is generally the most abundant. We extract the nonlinear response of these transitions from a HITRAN-based effective model and study the influence of this on the propagation of laser pulses and pulse trains. Comparing to simulations with only electronic Kerr self-focusing, we find that the nonlinear rovibrational response introduces an additional modification to strongly self-focused laser pulses and stark changes to pulses that are close to the self-focusing threshold.

Investigation of Backward Cladding-mode Coupling inBragg Gratings Implemented on a Si3N4 WaveguidePlatform

Jiahao Zhan, Yang Zhang, yiwen hu, Shengjie Xie, Sylvain Veilleux, and Mario Dagenais

Doc ID: 376758 Received 30 Aug 2019; Accepted 20 Oct 2019; Posted 21 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We present experimental and simulation results of sidewall Bragg gratings (BGs) implemented on a silicon nitride waveguide platform, with emphasis on the appreciable drop of transmission on the highfrequency side of the grating stopband due to the coupling into backward cladding/radiative modes. We differentiate this from the coupling into backward slab modes as observed in BGs implemented in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) ridge waveguides. The dimension of the device top cladding affects the shape of the drop pattern. Different approaches for circumventing this drop pattern are discussed. A better understanding of this physical phenomenon will help guide the design of Bragg gratings on integrated photonic platforms.

Dependence of static K DPAL performance on addition of methane: 3D CFD modeling and comparison with experimental results

Boris Barmashenko, Karol Waichman, and Salman Rosenwaks

Doc ID: 377532 Received 12 Sep 2019; Accepted 20 Oct 2019; Posted 22 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Recently it was observed that adding small amount of methane to the He buffer gas of static potassium diode pumped alkali laser (K DPAL) increases considerably the laser power. Further increase in the amount of methane leads to a moderate decrease in power. In the present work the effect of methane addition was investigated theoretically applying a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and potassium kinetics model which was supplemented by the analysis of the electron temperature and K ions ambipolar diffusion. It was found that for pure He buffer the K DPAL power is lower than for He/CH4 mixtures due to slow ion-electron recombination and high electron temperature exceeding 3000 K. The high electron temperature in pure He results in fast ambipolar diffusion of K ions to the wall and depletion of the neutral K atoms in the lasing region. These effects are mitigated when methane is added to the buffer gas. The calculated results for the normalized laser power are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental ones.

Manipulating Spontaneous Emission Spectra by Two-dimensional Ellipsoid Microcavities

Kaiyuan Xu and Chun Jiang

Doc ID: 369614 Received 10 Jun 2019; Accepted 18 Oct 2019; Posted 18 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Abstract: Integrated photonics is the most promising research direction in optoelectronics area at present, and the study of emission spectra and efficiency of light source is the fundamental issue in this area. In this paper we present an ellipsoid microcavity and derive its expression for Local Density of State (LDOS). Moreover, we use both the theoretical analysis and Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical simulation to observe the broadening of Spontaneous Emission Spectra (SES) by putting an emitter into a circular microcavity and an ellipsoid microcavity. The results show that a SES with full width at half magnitude (FWHM) of 200nm in free space could be doubled to 400nm in the ellipsoid microcavity. Further studies have shown that this approach can be used for any modification of spontaneous emission.

Design and simulation of high-sensitivity refractometric sensors based on defect modes in 1-D ternary dispersive photonic crystal

Mahdi Sovizi and Maryam Aliannezhadi

Doc ID: 372561 Received 12 Jul 2019; Accepted 18 Oct 2019; Posted 18 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Photonic crystals are widely used in sensors, lasers, optical wavelength filters and dispersion compensations used in optical communication networks. We propose to exploit the defect modes of one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal based on silicon, analyte, and silica layer for refractive index sensor. The defect modes create through inserting an analyte layer in the middle of the structure between two adjacent silica and silicon. Exploiting the defect modes in the transmission spectrum leads to hypersensitivity. The results show that the thickness of the layers and defect part are respectively about 155, 700, 155 and 1200 (nm) in optimum condition. Our optimum structure is about 11um long and sensitivity of this structure is more than 450nm/RIU and 600nm/RIU for the perpendicular light incident and incident angle of 45degree, respectively. The effect of dispersion is investigated on the sensor operation, too. Numerical simulations exhibit, sensitivity is decreased to 410nm/RIU for incident perpendicular rays. Also, the optimum thickness of the defect layer is changed significantly with considering the dispersion effects, so dispersion plays a significant role in the proposed sensor.

Thermal-motion-induced optical switching with standing-wave coupled atom-cavity system

haitao zhou, Yupeng Dai, Ruifeng Li, Ruixiang Guo, Dan Wang, and junxiang zhang

Doc ID: 374854 Received 06 Aug 2019; Accepted 18 Oct 2019; Posted 18 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We report an experimental scheme of three-channel all-optical switching based on the conversion between single- and double-dark states with an atom-ring-cavity system driven by a coherent standing-wave coupling field. By turning on and off the counter-propagating part of the coupling field, the switching for the probe field is achieved. Combing the susceptibility and Doppler effect of thermal atoms, we give a theoretical interpretation to the experimental results. The switching efficiency is greatly improved by introducing an additional coherent pump field.

Quantum noise spectrum in fiber-based nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplification considering Raman scattering

Kyo Inoue

Doc ID: 375779 Received 19 Aug 2019; Accepted 18 Oct 2019; Posted 18 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Wavelength dependence of quantum noise in nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplification in an optical fiber, where signal and its phase-conjugated idler lights are incident into a fiber together with pump light, is theoretically investigated. An analytical formula of the quantum-limited noise figure, that takes Raman scattering into account as well as parametric amplification, is derived based on full quantum mechanical treatment. Using the obtained formula, a calculation example of the noise figure spectrum is presented, where the pump light phase is adjusted so that the signal gain is maximum at a phase-matched wavelength, supposing multichannel amplification.

Statistical effects of optical parametric noise on signal pulses in synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator

Keisuke Nagashima, yoshihiro ochi, and Ryuji Itakura

Doc ID: 376470 Received 28 Aug 2019; Accepted 18 Oct 2019; Posted 18 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We report on an experimental study of the statistical effects of optical parametric noise on the signal pulses in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator. We measured a signal pulse that grew from the optical parametric noise using a temporal gating system and found that the time required for the signal growth was remarkably scattered, even if the pump pulses were maintained to be constant. The statistical properties of the signal pulses were not affected by the changes in the pump power but were characterized by the optical parametric noise. We examined these statistical properties numerically using nonlinear coupling equations and found that the measured properties could be reproduced using a simple model in which the optical parametric noise had random phase in the frequency domain.

Influence of strong light beams on the nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients of transparent materials

Georges Boudebs, Hongzhen Wang, Christophe Cassagne, Mihaela Chis, Anderson Amaral, and Cid Bartolomeu de Araujo

Doc ID: 372485 Received 11 Jul 2019; Accepted 15 Oct 2019; Posted 16 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We explore the effective nonlinear (NL) optical response of transparent materials illuminated by strong light beams with two different setups to study the influence of the numerical aperture (NA) corresponding to the collecting lens on the measured coefficients in the open and closed aperture Z-scan transmittance. For that, we have reproduced experiments in CS2 at 532nm in the picosecond regime using D4σ-Z-scan method. It is found that measurement of high order NL coefficients is not possible after a limit defined by the self-focusing of light inside the cell and that stimulated light scattering is not significant to explain alone the saturation behaviour that occurs in the NL refraction measurements. Indications are given for future Z-scan based experiments that may clarify the new boundary conditions to be respected for the measurement.

Design and fabrication of all-normal dispersion nanohole suspended-core fibers

Alexander Hartung, Joerg Bierlich, Adrian Lorenz, Jens Kobelke, and Matthias Jaeger

Doc ID: 377038 Received 03 Sep 2019; Accepted 15 Oct 2019; Posted 17 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Suspended-core fibers with a sub-micron diameter hole in the core offer interesting new possibilities in dispersion management, light confinement and nonlinear applications. We discuss the geometric demands and options of fused silica based nanohole suspended-core fibers suitable for all-normal dispersion and compare them to the possibilities provided by photonic crystal fibers. We show that nanohole suspended-core fibers extend the options photonic crystal fibers provide, enabling all-normal dispersion further into the near infrared. In addition, fabrication conditions are evaluated, a reliable fabrication scheme is outlined and all-normal dispersion nanohole suspended-core fibers are demonstrated.

Phase-induced Fano antiresonance in a planar waveguide with two dielectric ridges

chen xue and Peixin Chu

Doc ID: 376045 Received 21 Aug 2019; Accepted 14 Oct 2019; Posted 17 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The resonant optical phenomena associated with the physics of Fano resonances have received particular attention due to their numerous potential applications. In this work, the Fano resonance behaviors of a planar waveguide with two dielectric ridges have been theoretically studied. By using the temporal coupled-mode theory, a general formula was obtained for describing the Fano response of structure and general conclusions for the determination of the resonance parameters were drawn. A special type of Fano resonance (i.e., Fano antiresonance) was demonstrated by tuning the resonance parameters. Different from the results by using two effective coupling oscillators, two kinds of Fano antiresonance phenomena were found. We showed that the Fano antiresonance effects of structure can suppress the transmission of guided mode and contribute to the different field localization behaviors in the ridges due to the different interference effect. By obviating the need for a near-field interaction, the Fano antiresonance effects induced by phase coupling pave the way toward dynamic control the spectral response and field localization behaviors in the integrated optoelectric system.

Suspended core microstructured optical fibers with diverse arrangements of gold-filled holes: Study of the polarization characteristics and resonance strength

Rajat Basak and Debashri Ghosh

Doc ID: 374958 Received 07 Aug 2019; Accepted 13 Oct 2019; Posted 15 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We study the dispersion and polarization properties as well as the coupling characteristics of suspended core microstructured optical fibers (SC-MOFs) having constant pitch and air-filling fraction with varying suspension factor (SF) and diverse arrangements of gold-filled holes. The interaction between the core-guided fundamental mode and the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated on the surface of the gold-filled hole creates surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the phase-matching wavelengths. It is observed that such plasmonic SC-MOF designs exhibit very high birefringence and increased number of complete coupling points for high SF values. Also, for all the arrangements of gold-filled holes, the coupling occurs for higher order of the SPP for structures having greater SF. Resonance strength of such SC-MOFs is significantly enhanced and considerable reduction in full width at half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of the SPR peak is achieved for the x-axis with suitable arrangement of gold-filled holes. The values of the coupling strength and FWHM achieved for the proposed SC-MOF structures are better compared to all the data reported till now. The results suggest that such SC-MOF structures may be beneficial for developing polarizers or in-fiber polarization splitters with improved performance.

Reflective optical fiber sensor based on light polarization modulation for hydrogen sensing

Dongning Wang, Ben Xu, Ran Chang, Ping Li, chunliu zhao, Jianqing Li, Minghong Yang, and Lingze Duan

Doc ID: 375189 Received 12 Aug 2019; Accepted 13 Oct 2019; Posted 15 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: A simple reflective hydrogen sensing system based on polarization modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing unit consists of a polarizer, a polarization control and a sensing head composed of a short segment of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) with Pt-loaded WO3 coating. When the sensing head is exposed to hydrogen environment, heat is generated due to the interaction between hydrogen and WO3 with the help of catalyst Pt in air, then the local temperature of the PMF increases, which results in the reflection spectrum shift since the light polarization state changes due to the variation of birefringence coefficient of the PMF. Experimental results show that the system is capable of producing a rapid response to hydrogen with a high sensitivity of ~18.04 nm/% (vol%) within the concentration range of 0-4% (vol%). Additionally, the sensing head has a probe structure with reflective measurement and immunity to humidity. Such features make the sensing system promising in the fields of hydrogen transportation or storage.

Scattering-rate approach for efficient predictionof temperature-dependent characteristics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

Mykhaylo Semtsiv, Sergii Kurlov, georgiy tarasov, Ted Masselink, and Zoryana Zhuchenko

Doc ID: 374640 Received 05 Aug 2019; Accepted 12 Oct 2019; Posted 15 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: A computationally efficient temperature dependent model for scattering processes in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers is developed. In this approach, the total intersubband scattering rate is described as the product of the overlap integral for the squared moduli of the envelope functions and a form factor that depends on the transition energy, temperature, andmaterial. Both inelastic and elastic scattering processes are included in the treatment. The model is used to calculate the temperature-dependent threshold current density Jth(T) in a 10-period strain compensated InGaAs-InAlAs mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure and determinethe characteristic temperature T0 in Jth(T) = J0 exp (T/T0). The effect of doping is also modeled.

Mach-Zehnder interferometer with quantum beamsplitters

Daniel Valente, Nelson Almeida, and Thiago Werlang

Doc ID: 368133 Received 21 May 2019; Accepted 11 Oct 2019; Posted 11 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The quantum beamsplitter -- a two-level system (TLS) coupled to a one-dimensional continuum of electromagnetic modes -- is the most elementary version of a beamsplitter which may not only refract and reflect, but also absorb then reemit a photon. This raises the question of whether a single-photon pulse, once split by a first quantum beamsplitter, could be made to interfere by a second one. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze a quantum Mach-Zehnder interferometer (QMZ) as formed by two concatenated quantum beamsplitters. The distinctive feature of our QMZ is its appreciable saturability for a single photon, arising from the broadband nature of the pulse. We show that (i) off-resonant monochromatic photons produce classical interference patterns, whereas (ii) resonant broadband pulses erase these patterns, and that (iii) off-resonant broadband pulses always preserve some degree of interference if the two TLSs are oppositely detuned.

Dynamically tunable and transmissive linear to circular polarizer based on graphene metasurface

zhifei yao, mengjia lu, Chunyang Zhang, and yueke wang

Doc ID: 373935 Received 29 Jul 2019; Accepted 10 Oct 2019; Posted 11 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: A dynamically tunable and transmissive polarization converter, based on graphene metasurface, has been proposed in terahertz range. In this paper, the left-handed circular polarization(LHCP) with bandwidth from 5.15 to 5.52 THz is realized due to the superimposition of the two transmissive orthogonal components with a near 90°phase difference. By varying the fermi energy, the working frequencies of the converter can be dynamically controlled, which also imply the linear to circular polarization conversion originates from the excitation of graphene surface plasmon. Besides, the absorption loss decreases with increasing electron scattering time. All simulation results have been conducted by finite element method(FEM).

Phase-dependent light-induced torque

S. Hamide Kazemi and Mohammad Mahmoudi

Doc ID: 374351 Received 31 Jul 2019; Accepted 10 Oct 2019; Posted 11 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We study an optical torque, emerging through the interaction of orbital angular momentum with atoms/molecules, in quantum systems with closed-loop interactions. First, we show how atoms with a closed-loop scheme experience a well-controlled torque whose features depend on the relative phase of applied fields. Such controllable torque, along with simplicity of tuning the relative phase, can simplify the implementation of current flows in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. Moreover, we calculate the optical torque exerted on chiral molecules with cyclic-transition structures, and find that the enantiomers can experience different torques, for proper choice of the parameters. Such feature may find applications in sorting and separation of enantiomers.

Ultrabroadband infrared near-field spectroscopy and imaging of local resonators in percolative gold films

Xinzhong Chen, Jiawei Zhang, Ziheng Yao, Hans Bechtel, Michael Martin, Larry Carr, and Mengkun Liu

Doc ID: 375467 Received 15 Aug 2019; Accepted 10 Oct 2019; Posted 11 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Percolation processes are ubiquitous in nature and are responsible for many critical phenomena, such as first-order phase transitions and infectious epidemic networks. The optical properties of a percolative medium can generally be captured by the effective medium approximation (EMA) when the degree of percolation and the properties of the constituent materials are properly addressed. However, the important local collective responses of nanoclusters in the deep subwavelength regime are often only phenomenologically addressed in the standard EMA formalism. A comprehensive method that measures local light-matter interactions and registers how the local responses influence global optical properties has yet to be established on a firm basis. In this letter, we use infrared nano-imaging/ spectroscopy to investigate percolative gold films at the vicinity of the critical percolation threshold. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the near-field spectra yield quantitative information of the characteristic length scale of the local gold clusters and their relative oscillator strengths. As a result, EMA analysis can be augmented with nano-spectroscopy to yield better predictability of the infrared spectrum at the corresponding spectral range.

Randomized Spectral Sampling for Efficient Simulation of Laser Propagation through Optical Turbulence

Daniel Paulson, Chensheng Wu, and Christopher Davis

Doc ID: 364627 Received 09 Apr 2019; Accepted 10 Oct 2019; Posted 11 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We present a new method for the generation of atmospheric turbulence phase screens based on the frequency shift property of the Fourier transform. This method produces low spatial frequency distortions without additional computation time penalties associated with methods using subharmonic subgrids. It is demonstrated that for simulations of atmospheric turbulence with finite outer scales, the performance of our method with respect to the statistical phase structure of the screen meets or exceeds other methods with respect to agreement with theory. We outline small-scale accuracy issues associated with modelling non-Kolmogorov spectral power laws using existing techniques, and propose a solution. For simulations of long-range propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence, our method provides various advantages over standard methods.

Preserving nonclassical correlations in strongly unbalanced conditions

Alessia Allevi and Maria Bondani

Doc ID: 371259 Received 28 Jun 2019; Accepted 09 Oct 2019; Posted 09 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: It is well known that optical losses represent the main obstacle to the real exploitation of quantum optical systems for quantum technology. Here we investigate to which extent the presence of unbalanced losses between the two parties of a mesoscopic twin-beam state can prevent or not the observation of nonclassical correlations. Moreover, we focus on the survival of nonclassicality in the presence of asymmetric lossy channels modelled according to specific statistical distributions.

Potential of Bessel spiral zone plate in complex beam shaping and structuring

Arash Sabatyan and Seyyed Mojtaba Taheri

Doc ID: 376259 Received 26 Aug 2019; Accepted 08 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We aim here to show that azimuthal structuring of the optical beam may be realized by apodizing spiral zone plate using an azimuthal modulated Bessel function. We demonstrate that the azimuthal modulation of a Bessel beam may cause its transmittance to take negative values in azimuth. Accordingly, when a diffractive element (herein spiral zone plate) is apodized by such a modulated Bessel function its transmittance undergoes an azimuthally phase change which imposes that phase change on a beam passing through it. This means that the technique enables us to produce a variety of azimuthal beam shapes like a spiral, ring-lattice, light-arm, and multi-spot beams. In this research, we illustrate how these structures and shapes are produced and tailored. To verify the consequences of the simulation, the corresponding experiments were planned.

Optical Precursors in a Weakly Dispersive Double Narrow Resonance Dielectric

Heejeong Jeong, Chang-Won Lee, Andrew Dawes, and Daniel Gauthier

Doc ID: 373900 Received 29 Jul 2019; Accepted 08 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We investigate optical precursors transmitted through a double Lorentz dielectric consisting of two adjacent narrow resonances. The transmitted envelop shows additional modulation patterns compared to the patterns in a single Lorentz dielectric that oscillates at the separation frequency between two resonances corresponding to the doublet frequency separation. We use the weakly-dispersive, narrow-resonance (WDNR) condition to analyze it, which compares favorably to our observations. This work will be meaningful to identify dielectric properties by analyzing the multi-resonant media for application of optical communication.

Nonlinear propagation characteristics of a radially polarized beam in a uniaxially aligned dye-doped liquid crystal

Moritsugu Sakamoto, Naoto Matsuo, Kohei Noda, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Nobuhiro Kawatsuki, and Hiroshi Ono

Doc ID: 368916 Received 04 Jun 2019; Accepted 07 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The nonlinear propagation characteristics of a radially polarized (RP) beam in uniaxially aligned dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) were investigated in experiments and theorly. The photothermal effect produces changes in the refractive index of the nonlinear polarization-sensitive medium, in both ordinary and extraordinary directions. The changes promote a self-modulation of the polarization pattern in the incident RP beam as it propagates through the DDLC. The experiemntal results are explained from theory by modeling the change in the refractive index of the medium. Our results may be applied to spatial polarization modulation, by which an axially symmetric polarized beam is converted into another structured light such as the full Poincar\'e beam.

Modulating quantum fluctuations of scattered lights in disordered media via wavefront shaping

Dong Li and Yao Yao

Doc ID: 373613 Received 24 Jul 2019; Accepted 07 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: After multiple scattering of quadrature-squeezed lights in a disordered medium, the quadrature amplitudes of the scattered modes present an excess noise above the shot-noise level [Opt. Expr. 14, 6919 (2006)]. A natural question is raised whether there exists a method of suppressing the quadrature fluctuation of the output mode. The answer is affirmative. In this work, we prove that wavefront shaping is a promising method to reduce the quantum noise of quadrature amplitudes of the scattered modes. This reduction is owing to the destructive interference of quantum noise. Specifically, when the single-mode squeezed states are considered as inputs, the quantum fluctuation can always be reduced, even below the shot-noise level. These results may have potential applications in quantum information processing, for instance, sub-wavelength imaging using the scattering superlens with squeezed-state sources.

Wavelength scaling laws for high-order harmonic yield from atoms driven by mid- and long-wave infrared laser fields

Mikhail Emelin, Mikhail Ryabikin, and Anna Emelina

Doc ID: 376522 Received 28 Aug 2019; Accepted 07 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is known to benefit from using midinfrared driving laser fields, since, due to a favorable wavelength scaling of the electron ponderomotive energy, higher-energy photon production becomes feasible with longer-wavelength drivers. On the other hand, recent studies have revealed a number of physical effects whose importance for HHG increases with increasing laser wavelength. These effects, as a rule, result not only in a general decrease of the harmonic yield but also in a reshaping of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the detailed study of the dependence of HHG yield on the laser wavelength has become important issue for producing intense extremely short XUV and x-ray pulses using HHG driven by long-wavelength laser fields. Here, we address this issue by calculating the HHG spectra for laser wavelengths ranging from 2 to 20 µm. This study has been carried out in frame of strong-field approximation modified properly to take into account the atomic bound-state depletion and the effect of the magnetic field of a laser pulse on the dynamics of the field-ionized electron. We show that different regions of the HHG spectrum behave differently with the laser wavelength and discuss the origins of this behavior. The analytical formulas are derived that match well the calculated wavelength scalings.

Numerical study on mid-infrared optical parametric oscillation around 5 μm by injecting signal vector beams in an As2Se2 MOFs

Weiqing Gao, Peng Wang, Wenhui Jiang, Zhengxiong Zhang, Xiu Zhang, Panyun Gao, Zhang Wei, Meisong Liao, Takenobu Suzuki, Yasutake Ohishi, and Zhou Yong

Doc ID: 373885 Received 26 Jul 2019; Accepted 04 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The influence of the core diameter and pump wavelength on the phase-matching conditions when the different signal vector beams are injected is analyzed numerically in a suspended-core As2Se3 microstructured optical fiber (MOF). The idle wavelengths satisfying the phase-matching conditions with different signal vector beams can arrive the wavelengths 4.8-5.9 μm in the As2Se3 MOFs with different core diameters. By changing the signal vector mode field and adjusting the corresponding signal wavelength, the idler wavelength can be tuned in 754.8 nm from 4.9182 to 5.6730 μm with the pump wavelength changing from 2.80 to 2.90 μm. The influence on signal gain and the idler conversion efficiency is calculated in the As2Se3 MOFs with different lengths when injecting different signal vector beams. The signal and idle conversion efficiency can arrive ~28 dB and ~24%, respectively, when the different signal vector beams are injected. The simulated results demonstrate that the optical parametric oscillation with the wavelengths longer than 5 μm can be realized in chalcogenide fibers with the signal vector beams injecting.

Controlling spatial hole burning in lasers using anisotropic laser mirrors

Jean-Francois Bisson and Koffi Amouzou

Doc ID: 374183 Received 30 Jul 2019; Accepted 04 Oct 2019; Posted 08 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The concept of the twisted-mode laser operation, which suppresses spatial hole burning and produces single mode operation in a standing wave resonator, is revisited for the case of optically anisotropic laser mirrors presenting arbitrary birefringent and dichroic properties. Our analysis clarifies the relationship between the mirrors’ optical properties and the proximity of the polarization states of the counter-propagating waves, which determines the visibility of the standing wave pattern inside the resonator. The intensity of the principal mode and the population of excited states as a function of the pumping rate are then determined analytically and enable estimates of the slope efficiency and threshold of multimode emission for a given value of the proximity factor. The excited state population is found to reach an upper bound as a function of the pumping rate, for every value of the proximity factor, except unity. Design rules of anisotropic mirrors for producing single frequency operation are provided that are less strict than those for achieving pure twisted mode operation.

Stable Numerical Schemes for Nonlinear Dispersive Equations with Counter-Propagation and Gain Dynamics

J. Kutz, Steven Cundiff, Herbert Winful, Mark Dong, Chang Sun, and Niall Mangan

Doc ID: 371065 Received 27 Jun 2019; Accepted 03 Oct 2019; Posted 04 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We develop a stable and efficient numerical scheme for modeling the optical field evolution in a nonlinear dispersive cavity with counter propagating waves and complex, semiconductor physics gain dynamics that are expensive to evalute. Our stability analysis is characterized by a von-Neumann analysis which shows that many standard numerical schemes are unstable due to competing physical effects in the propagation equations. We show that the combination of a predictor-corrector scheme with an operator-splitting not only results in a stable scheme, but provides a highly efficient, single-stage evaluation of the gain dynamics. Given that the gain dynamics is the rate-limiting step of the algorithm, our method circumvents the numerical instability induced by the other cavity physics when evaluating the gain in an efficient manner. We demonstrate the stability and efficiency of the algorithm on a diode laser model which includes three waveguides and semiconductor gain dynamics. The laser is able to produce a repeating temporal waveform and stable optical comblines, thus demonstrating that frequency combs generation may be possible in chip scale, diode lasers.

Diffraction-ray tubes analysis of ultrashort high-intense laser pulse filamentation in air

Yuri Geints, Olga Minina, and Alexander Zemlyanov

Doc ID: 361851 Received 07 Mar 2019; Accepted 01 Oct 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The results of theoretical simulation of femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulses propagation in air in the self-focusing and filamentation regimes are presented. The self-focusing of pulsed radiation was analyzed based on the diffraction ray tracing method, within which the beam power propagates within specific light structures, known as the diffraction-ray tubes. These tubes do not intersect in space, do not exchange their energy, but the changes in their shape and cross-section reflect the physical effects occurring with the radiation during its propagation through the medium. This allows discovering the formation of specific light structures in a laser beam during its self-focusing. One of these structures is the energy-replenishing diffraction-ray tube (ERT), which provides the filamentation domain with the necessary light energy and exists also in the form of a high-intensity light channel during the post-filamentation propagation of a pulse. The dependences of the radius and power of this energy-replenishing tube on the initial beam radius and peak radiation power at a fixed pulse length are derived. It is revealed that the radiation energy expenditure for filamentation decreases as the beam radius increases. The peak power in ERT does not exceed the critical self-focusing power for a Gaussian beam during the post-filamentation propagation of a pulse and weakly depends on the initial pulse parameters.

Extraction of effective constitutive parameters of artificial media using Bloch modes

Behzad Rejaei and Abbas Sheikh Ansari

Doc ID: 373637 Received 24 Jul 2019; Accepted 01 Oct 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: The effective constitutive parameters of a three-dimensional periodic structure are calculated using its Bloch modes. These modes and their propagation constants are obtained from eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the generalized transfer matrix of a unit layer of the structure. Effective, bulk permittivity and permeability tensors of the medium are obtained when two of the Bloch modes are dominant, i.e., propagate without significant decay inside the medium. The effect of the strongly decaying Bloch modes, that are excited at the interface with a conventional medium, are included by means of surface impedance matrices. The results are in excellent agreement with full-wave electromagnetic simulations.

Design and analysis of 6-channel all-optical wavelength filter

Haraprasad Mondal, Mrinal Sen, and Kamanashis Goswami

Doc ID: 374077 Received 29 Jul 2019; Accepted 30 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: An all-optical 6-channel wavelength filter has been proposed in this paper, based on a two-dimensional rods-in-air square-lattice photonic crystal (PhC) slab structure. Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method has been applied to compute the band structure of the PhC. Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Time domain (3D-FDTD) simulation methodology has been used to measure and analyze the performance of the filter. Performances for both the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) design of the structure have been analyzed. The analyses show that the device is capable of filtering six different wavelengths i.e., 1310 nm, 1415 nm, 1455 nm, 1550 nm, 1725 nm and 1770 nm. Owing to its linear optical operation, the device is able to operate at a low power and, also, offers high data-rate of ~ 2 Tb/s. Moreover, footprint area of the proposed device is in the order of 165 µm2, which is suitable for high density integration of photonic circuits.

Theory of three-pulse photon echo spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

Jonggu Jeon, JunWoo Kim, Tai Hyun Yoon, and Minhaeng Cho

Doc ID: 368715 Received 31 May 2019; Accepted 30 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: A theoretical analysis is carried out for the recently developed three-pulse photon echo spectroscopy employing dual frequency combs (DFC) as the light sources. In this method, the molecular sample interacts with three pulse trains derived from the DFC and the generated third-order signal is displayed as a two-dimensional (2D) spectrum that depends on the waiting time introduced by employing asynchronous optical sampling method. Through the analysis of the heterodyne-detected signal interferogram using a local oscillator derived from one of the optical frequency combs, we show that the 2D spectrum closely matches the spectrum expected from a conventional approach with four pulses derived from a single femtosecond laser pulse and the waiting time between the second and third field-matter interactions is given by the down-converted detection time of the interferogram. The theoretical result is applied to a two-level model system with solvation effect described by solvatochromic spectral density. The model 2D spectrum reproduces spectral features such as the loss of frequency correlation, dephasing, and spectral shift as a function of the population time. We anticipate that the present theory will be the general framework for quantitative descriptions of DFC-based nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

A modified Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation for frequency-dependent nonlinear profiles of arbitrary sign

Juan Bonetti, Nicolas Linale, Alfredo Sanchez, Santiago Hernandez, Pablo Fierens, and Diego Grosz

Doc ID: 372983 Received 18 Jul 2019; Accepted 30 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: In recent times, materials exhibiting frequency-dependent optical nonlinearities, such as nanoparticle-doped glasses and other metamaterials, have gathered significant interest. The simulation of the propagation of intense light pulses in such media, by means of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), poses the problem that straightforward inclusion of a frequency-dependent nonlinearity may lead to unphysical results; namely, neither the energy nor the photon number are conserved in general. Inspired by a simple quantum-mechanical argument, we derive an energy- and photon-conserving nonlinear Schrödinger equation (pcNLSE). Unlike others, our approach relies only on the knowledge of the frequency-dependent nonlinearity profile and a generalization of Miller's rule for the nonlinear susceptibility, enabling the simulation of nonlinear profiles of arbitrary frequency dependence and sign. Moreover, the proposed pcNLSE can be efficiently solved by the same numerical techniques commonly used to deal with the NLSE. Relevant simulation results supporting our theoretical approach are presented.

Rational design of colorimetric sensing for customer-oriented index range using plasmonic substrates

Lin Cheng, JIANYONG MAO, Kun Wang, Jiangbo Lu, Kun Huang, Yanpeng Zhang, and Lei Zhang

Doc ID: 374822 Received 06 Aug 2019; Accepted 29 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Both beneficial and harmful matters widely spread in aqueous solutions. Various approaches have been developed to identify them qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the colorimetric sensing, relying on an observable environment-induced color change, is a readily accessible approach to detect signals via our naked eyes, with no need of extra optoelectronic devices. Here, we propose a colorimetric sensing scheme with an enhanced performance using plasmonic metasurfaces. By judiciously selecting the structure parameters, the plasmonic resonance can be flexibly tuned at the entire visible range. Along with a pair of polarizers to filter the polarization states of the incident light and output reflection, a plasmonic metasurface, supporting bright colors, can serve as an efficient colorimetric sensing substrate. As an example, a figure of merit can be obtained as high as 1175°/RIU in the demodulation of the hue. Significantly, the sensing capability can be designed according to the selected solvent with a specified refractive index, which promises a target-oriented colorimetric sensing scheme.

Modulational instability in liquid crystals with competing nonlinearities

Shaozhi Pu, Ying Li, Ming Chen, and Liuyang Zhang

Doc ID: 375192 Received 12 Aug 2019; Accepted 29 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: We employ a model which is proposed by P. S. Jung et al. [see P. S. Jung et al. Opt. Express 25 (2017) 893- 897] to investigate modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in liquid crystals with competing nonlinearities. We find that the competition between thermal nonlinearity and reorientational nonlinearity leads to unique stability of the plane waves. We also find that both of the nonlocality of the orientational effect (σ1) and the opt-thermal nonlinearity (γ) tend to suppress the MI by decreasing both the gain bandwidth and the maximum gain. Particularly, due to the competing nonlinearities, we find that the MI is closely related to the critical power which is only related to the opt-thermal nonlinearity coefficient (γ) but irrelevant to the profile of the nonlocal response function when σ1=σ2. Interestingly, the plane wave is always stable providing its power larger than the critical power. Our analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. These results may provide insight to the theoretical and experimental studies of the solitons in liquid crystals with competing nonlinearities.

Design of a Radiation-Balanced Fiber-Laser via Optically Active Composite Cladding Materials

Peter Pauzauskie, Xiaojing Xia, Anupum Pant, and E. James Davis

Doc ID: 370585 Received 19 Jun 2019; Accepted 29 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Although the output power of commercial fiber lasers has been reported to exceed 500 kW, the heat generated within fiber gain-media has limited the generation of higher laser powers due to thermal lensing and melting of the gain-media at high temperatures. Radiation balanced fiber lasers promise to mitigate detrimental thermal effects within fiber gain-media based on using upconverted, anti-Stokes photoluminescence to extract heat from the optical fiber’s core. In this manuscript, we experimentally demonstrate that Yb(III) ions within YLiF4 (YLF) crystals are capable of cooling the cladding of optical fibers. We also present a design for radiation-balanced fiber-lasers using a composite fiber cladding material that incorporates YLF nanocrystals as the active photonic heat engine. YLF crystals have the potential to form composite cladding materials to mitigate thermal gradients within the core and cladding based on anti-Stokes photoluminescence. Analytical models of heat transfer within the fiber are presented where the electric-field amplitude within the fiber core is responsible for both the heating of the core, and also the excitation of Yb(III) ions for anti-Stokes laser refrigeration in the cladding.

A Novel Sinusoidally Modulated Leaky Wave Antenna Based on Cylindrical Graphene Waveguide

Homayoon Oraizi and Hadi Soleimani

Doc ID: 374395 Received 31 Jul 2019; Accepted 29 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Based on the cylindrical graphene waveguide (CGW), the concept and analysis of a novel leaky wave antenna (LWA) at terahertz band are presented. The proposed structure overcomes the limitations of planar LWA characteristics, such as radiation efficiency and beam-width. The values of attenuation and leakage constants can lead to the maximum radiation efficiency and beam-width in the planar LWA equal to about and , but in cylindrical LWA equal to about and , respectively. The leaky wave is excited by a sinusoidally modulated graphene surface (SMGS). A sinusoidally modulated reactance surface (SMRS) allows for a nearly independent control of the phase and leakage constants and thus adjusts the scan angle and radiation efficiency simultaneously. An SMRS was first realized by applying various bias voltages to different gating pads underneath the graphene sheet. Another desirable feature of antenna is the high value of input impedance, so it can easily be matched to a photomixer.

Brillouin Induced Self-heterodyne Method for Low Jitter Measurement of Laser Linewidth.

Arpita Sinha Roy and Pradeep Kumar Krishnamurthy

Doc ID: 374401 Received 01 Aug 2019; Accepted 27 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: In this paper, we study experimentally and analytically the stimulated Brillouin induced self-heterodyne technique for linewidth measurement of lasers having narrow spectral widths. The output of a laser under test (LUT) is modulated by a RF signal to generate the sidebands. The carrier and the sidebands co-propagate in a single-mode fiber (SMF) along withthe stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) signal generated by a counter-propagating pump. The SBS process amplifies one of the sidebands, which beats with the LUT carrier wave. The beat signal is detected using a photodiode and analyzed using an electrical spectrum analyzer tocompute the laser linewidth. We analyse the SISH scheme mathematically to obtain expression of the power spectral density of the photocurrent. Experimental results show 20 and 3 dB linewidths of 15 and 5.5 kHz which are in excellent agreement with the estimated theoretical values therebyvalidating the analysis. We also perform the conventional delayed self-heterodyne measurement and obtain 20 dB linewidth of 15 kHz which compares well with SISH method. However, SISH technique reduces jitter by 10 dB. We also study the dependence on linewidth measurement ofthe SISH scheme on fiber length. For 2 km SMF length, the 20 dB linewidth is kHz which is higher compared to the measurement obtained by using 25 km SMF.

Micro-optics properties of liquid-crystal lens with an arrayed planar non-uniform spiral micro-coil electrode driven by electric-current signals

Mingce Chen, Xinjie Han, Wanwan Dai, Haiwei Wang, Leilei Niu, Qi Shao, Zhang Xinyu, Huiying Wang, and Changsheng Xie

Doc ID: 368183 Received 22 May 2019; Accepted 26 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: A new type of electrically controlled liquid-crystal lens (EC-LCL) with an arrayed planar non-uniform spiral micro-coil electrode driven by electric-current signals is proposed. An arrayed cylindrical microbeam focusing and a quasi-circular microbeam focusing corresponding to a circular and an elliptical micro-coil are realized, respectively. Under the control of the electric-current signal with a relatively low intensity, an orderly inclining of LC directors can be achieved through a combined action of the magnetic-field generated by each micro-coil and the magnetic induction electric-field. Through applying different electric-current signals with needed intensity and frequency and dutycycle in a single electrode plate of the LC microcavity, the electrically tunable focusing properties are valuated experimentally, such as an arrayed focal line with ~1.75mm focal length corresponding to a signal voltage of ~45.6Vrms and a focal point with ~2.35mm focal length corresponding to ~55.0Vrms. The researches lay a solid basis for continuously developing the EC-LCL technology.

On Dyakonov-Voigt surface waves guided by the planar interface of dissipative materials

Chenzhang Zhou, Tom Mackay, and Akhlesh Lakhtakia

Doc ID: 377508 Received 11 Sep 2019; Accepted 26 Sep 2019; Posted 02 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: Dyakonov--Voigt (DV) surface waves guided by the planar interface of (i) material $\calA$ which is a uniaxial dielectric material, specified by a relative permittivity dyadic with eigenvalues$\eps^s_\calA$ and $\eps^t_\calA$, and (ii) material $\calB$ which is an isotropic dielectric material with relative permittivity $\eps_\calB$, were numerically investigated by solving the corresponding canonical boundary-value problem.The two partnering materials were generally dissipative, with the optic axis of material $\calA$ being inclined at the angle $\chi \in \les 0 ^\circ, 90^\circ \ris$ relative to the interface plane. No solutions of the dispersion equation for DV surface waves exist when $\chi=90^\circ$. Also, no solutions exist for $\chi \in \le 0 ^\circ, 90^\circ \ri$, when both partnering materials are nondissipative.For $\chi \in \les 0 ^\circ, 90^\circ \ri$, the degree of dissipation of material $\calA$ has a profound effect onthephase speeds, propagation lengths, and penetration depths of the DV surface waves. For mid-range values of $\chi$, DV surface waves with negative phase velocities were found. For fixed valuesof $\eps^s_\calA$ and $\eps^t_\calA$ in the upper-half-complex plane, DV surface-wave propagation is only possible for large values of $\chi$ when $| \eps_\calB|$ is very small.

The effect of Doppler broadening on giant self-Kerr nonlinearity in a five-level ladder-type system

Khoa Dinh, Bang Nguyen, Doai Le, and Doan Son

Doc ID: 372565 Received 12 Jul 2019; Accepted 17 Sep 2019; Posted 01 Oct 2019  View: PDF

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an analytical model to study the effect of Doppler broadening on self-Kerr nonlinearity in a five-level ladder-type atomic system. First- and third-order susceptibilities and self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient are found as the function of temperature and parameters of laser fields. The analytical model is applied to hot 85Rb and 87Rb atoms and shown that under electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect, self-Kerr nonlinear coefficient is enhanced around three transparent spectral regions. When the temperature of atomic vapor increases (i.e., Doppler width increases), the depth and width of the EIT windows decrease accordingly, and therefore the amplitude of Kerr nonlinear coefficient decreases significantly. In addition, due to the frequency gaps between hyperfine levels of upper exited state 5D5/2 of 85Rb atom is much smaller than those of 87Rb atom, so the EIT windows as well as the nonlinear dispersion curves for 85Rb atom are closer than those for 87Rb atom as the Doppler effect presents. The analytical results agree well with the experimental observation when reducing to three-level atomic system. The analytical model can be used to easily fit the experimental observations of self-Kerr nonlinearity in five-level atomic system under different temperature conditions and apply to related applications in photonic devices.

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