Abstract

Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain transient dynamics are studied in the context of their application in optically reconfigurable networks. We address the question of how to design the EDFA in order to minimize the gain transients present in the output signals of the EDFA when the system is optically reconfigured such that the total average input power levels and wavelengths are changed. Both experimental measurements and theoretical simulations show that the amplitude transients depend on the length of the erbium doped fiber (EDF) and the erbium concentration. We show how it may be possible to reduce the gain transients by appropriate design of the EDFA.

©2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Desurvire, C.R. Giles, and J.R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda=1.53μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095–2104 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1682 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. T. Andersonet al, “The MONET project –A final report,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1988–2009 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Chen and G. Cowle, “Responses of optical amplifier to optical bursts,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005) OTuN1.
  5. C. Tian and S. Kinoshita, “Analysis and Control of Transient Dynamics of EDFA Pumped by 1480- and 980-nm Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1728–1734 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Bononi and L. Barbieri, “Design of gain-clamped doped-fiber amplifiers for optimal dynamic performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1229–1240 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Song, M. Premaratne, and R. D. T. Lauder, “An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1378–1380 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, “All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 84–86 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  9. D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027–1036 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire “Modeling Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Luo, J.L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillations and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s for WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 527 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, “All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 84–86 (2004)
[Crossref]

K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027–1036 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire “Modeling Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

E. Desurvire, C.R. Giles, and J.R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda=1.53μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095–2104 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. T.

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, “All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 84–86 (2004)
[Crossref]

Ali, Mohamed A.

G. Luo, J.L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillations and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s for WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 527 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027–1036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Anderson, W. T.

Barbieri, L.

Bononi, A.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and G. Cowle, “Responses of optical amplifier to optical bursts,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005) OTuN1.

Cowle, G.

Y. Chen and G. Cowle, “Responses of optical amplifier to optical bursts,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005) OTuN1.

Desurvire, E.

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire “Modeling Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, C.R. Giles, and J.R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda=1.53μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095–2104 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ennser, K.

K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Giles, C.R.

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire “Modeling Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, C.R. Giles, and J.R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda=1.53μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095–2104 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jackel, J. L.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027–1036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, “All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 84–86 (2004)
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, S.

Lauder, R. D. T.

K. Song, M. Premaratne, and R. D. T. Lauder, “An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1378–1380 (1999).
[Crossref]

Luo, G.

Mornatta, C.

K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagel, J. A.

Premaratne, M.

K. Song, M. Premaratne, and R. D. T. Lauder, “An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1378–1380 (1999).
[Crossref]

Richards, D. H.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027–1036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sacchi, G.

K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simpson, J.R.

E. Desurvire, C.R. Giles, and J.R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda=1.53μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095–2104 (1989).
[Crossref]

Song, K.

K. Song, M. Premaratne, and R. D. T. Lauder, “An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1378–1380 (1999).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A. K.

Sun, Y.

Taccheo, S.

K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tian, C.

Zhang, L.

Zyskind, J. L.

Zyskind, J.L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and Mohamed A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027–1036 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Song, M. Premaratne, and R. D. T. Lauder, “An analytical formulation of the transient response of gain-clamped EDFAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1378–1380 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, “All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 84–86 (2004)
[Crossref]

K. Ennser, G. Sacchi, C. Mornatta, and S. Taccheo, “Dynamic behavior of gain-clamped Er:Yb and high concentration Er-doped amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1643–1645 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

Other (1)

Y. Chen and G. Cowle, “Responses of optical amplifier to optical bursts,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005) OTuN1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Gain transient crosstalk of gain-clamped EDFA with different EDF lengths while 8 out of 16 channels are dropped stabilized EDF.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of gain clamped configuration: Feedback loop (top) and Reflective cavity (bottom).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Gain transient crosstalk of gain-clamped EDFA with feedback loop (left column) and FP cavity (right column) while 8 out of 16 channels are dropped. Erbium concentrations in m-3 are indicated at the top right.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Power excursion of surviving channels under a gain-clamped EDFA with feedback loop (left) and FP cavity (right) under different erbium concentrations in m-3. 8 out of 16 channels are dropped under various gain levels.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic setup for transient gain dynamic measurement with forward-pumping reflective cavity gain-clamp configuration.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured gain saturation crosstalk due to add/drop channels in WDM network with 13.5 meters EDF (21uW/div; 100us/div).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured gain saturation crosstalk due to add/drop channels in WDM network with 1.8 meters high-doped EDF (50uW/div; 500us/div).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optimised EDF lengths for maximum output gain under different erbium concentration and constant pump power.

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