Abstract

For differential decoding, direct detection of DPSK signal needs a delay line interferometer with a free spectral range normally equal to the transmitted bit-rate. We numerically demonstrate that free spectral range optimization can increase tolerance to fiber Kerr nonlinearities for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK transmission, especially for multi-format (RZ-DPSK and RZOOK) systems, in which Kerr nonlinearities is quite serious mainly due to cross-phase modulation. The optimal delay time of the delay line interferometer in DPSK signal demodulation is shorter than one bit-period. Joint optimization of free spectral range and optical filter bandwidth will further enhance system tolerance to nonlinear transmission.

©2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. J. Winzer and R. -J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711–4728 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Spinger, 2005).
  5. W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).
  6. P. Winzer and H. Kim, “Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282–1284 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. Malouin, J. Bennike, and T. Schmidt, “DPSK Receiver Design - Optical Filtering Considerations,” OFC 2007, Paper OThK1.
  11. L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.
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    [Crossref]
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  14. I. Leung, C. Malouin, G. Nicholl, and W. Wakim, “Performance of a 43Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal over a 1440km commercial 10Gb/s DWDM system, under varying DPSK decoder FSR values,” ECOC 2007, paper P099.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  17. X. Li, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, and A. Xu, “Suppression of XPM and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise for RZDPSK signals in 40 Gb/s WDM transmission systems with optimum dispersion mapping,” Opt. Express 15, 18247–18252 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1363–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer and R. -J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711–4728 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Winzer and H. Kim, “Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282–1284 (2003).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Atia, W. A.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).

Bennike, J.

C. Malouin, J. Bennike, and T. Schmidt, “DPSK Receiver Design - Optical Filtering Considerations,” OFC 2007, Paper OThK1.

Bondurant, R. S.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).

Bosco, G.

Chen, Z.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express 15, 6817–6822 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, L. Christen, M. Faucher, and A. E. Willner, “Free spectral range and optical filtering optimization in NRZ-, RZ- and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation,” IEEE LEOS 2007 Annu. Meeting, Paper MP1, 139–140 (2007).

Cvijetic, M.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Essiambre, R. -J.

Essiambre, R.-J.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faucher, M.

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, L. Christen, M. Faucher, and A. E. Willner, “Free spectral range and optical filtering optimization in NRZ-, RZ- and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation,” IEEE LEOS 2007 Annu. Meeting, Paper MP1, 139–140 (2007).

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

Ho, K. P.

K. P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Spinger, 2005).

Ji, P. N.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express 15, 6817–6822 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Kim, H.

P. Winzer and H. Kim, “Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282–1284 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leung, I.

I. Leung, C. Malouin, G. Nicholl, and W. Wakim, “Performance of a 43Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal over a 1440km commercial 10Gb/s DWDM system, under varying DPSK decoder FSR values,” ECOC 2007, paper P099.

Li, X.

Liu, F.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1363–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express 15, 6817–6822 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, L. Christen, M. Faucher, and A. E. Willner, “Free spectral range and optical filtering optimization in NRZ-, RZ- and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation,” IEEE LEOS 2007 Annu. Meeting, Paper MP1, 139–140 (2007).

Malouin, C.

I. Leung, C. Malouin, G. Nicholl, and W. Wakim, “Performance of a 43Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal over a 1440km commercial 10Gb/s DWDM system, under varying DPSK decoder FSR values,” ECOC 2007, paper P099.

C. Malouin, J. Bennike, and T. Schmidt, “DPSK Receiver Design - Optical Filtering Considerations,” OFC 2007, Paper OThK1.

Mamyshev, P.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1363–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, O.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1363–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Nicholl, G.

I. Leung, C. Malouin, G. Nicholl, and W. Wakim, “Performance of a 43Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal over a 1440km commercial 10Gb/s DWDM system, under varying DPSK decoder FSR values,” ECOC 2007, paper P099.

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express 15, 6817–6822 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Paraschis, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Poggiolini, P.

Rasmussen, C.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1363–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Schmidt, T.

C. Malouin, J. Bennike, and T. Schmidt, “DPSK Receiver Design - Optical Filtering Considerations,” OFC 2007, Paper OThK1.

Tajima, T.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Wakim, W.

I. Leung, C. Malouin, G. Nicholl, and W. Wakim, “Performance of a 43Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal over a 1440km commercial 10Gb/s DWDM system, under varying DPSK decoder FSR values,” ECOC 2007, paper P099.

Wang, T.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Wei, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wickham, L. K.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express 15, 6817–6822 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, L. Christen, M. Faucher, and A. E. Willner, “Free spectral range and optical filtering optimization in NRZ-, RZ- and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation,” IEEE LEOS 2007 Annu. Meeting, Paper MP1, 139–140 (2007).

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Winzer, P.

P. Winzer and H. Kim, “Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282–1284 (2003).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. -J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711–4728 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

Wu, X.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express 15, 6817–6822 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, L. Christen, M. Faucher, and A. E. Willner, “Free spectral range and optical filtering optimization in NRZ-, RZ- and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation,” IEEE LEOS 2007 Annu. Meeting, Paper MP1, 139–140 (2007).

Xu, A.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Yang, J.-Y.

Zhang, F.

Zong, L.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1363–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Winzer and H. Kim, “Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282–1284 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, “Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation,” ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5.

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, L. Christen, M. Faucher, and A. E. Willner, “Free spectral range and optical filtering optimization in NRZ-, RZ- and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation,” IEEE LEOS 2007 Annu. Meeting, Paper MP1, 139–140 (2007).

I. Leung, C. Malouin, G. Nicholl, and W. Wakim, “Performance of a 43Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal over a 1440km commercial 10Gb/s DWDM system, under varying DPSK decoder FSR values,” ECOC 2007, paper P099.

C. Malouin, J. Bennike, and T. Schmidt, “DPSK Receiver Design - Optical Filtering Considerations,” OFC 2007, Paper OThK1.

L. Xu, P. N. Ji, L. Zong, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, O. Matsuda, and T. Tajima, “Low Crosstalk Demodulators for 42.8Gb/s WDM DPSK Systems,” OFC 2006, Paper OThI5.

K. P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Spinger, 2005).

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. System configuration in our simulation. For single-channel system, one channel carrying 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK signal with 33% duty cycle is transmitted. For RZ-DPSK WDM system, three channels all carry 40 Gbit/s 33% RZ-DPSK signals. For multi-format WDM system, the center channel still transmits RZ-DPSK signals, while its two neighbors use 40 Gbit/s 33% RZ-OOK formats.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Optimization results of DLI delay time vs. transmission distance for 40 Gbit/s single-/multi-channel RZ-DPSK systems and multi-format (RZ-DPSK and RZ-OOK) WDM systems.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The eye diagrams of 3000 km 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK single-channel and WDM systems.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The results of optimizing delay time for 40 Gbit/s multi-format WDM systems after 3000 km transmission. The eye diagram is received without ASE noise.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. BER vs. different delay time for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK WDM transmission after 3000 km with and without nonlinear phase noise.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. OSNR penalty contour vs. DLI delay time and optical filter bandwidth for 40 Gbit/s multi-format WDM transmission after 3000 km and a BER target of 1e-3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance of 3000 km multi-format WDM systems with resonant and optimum dispersion maps.

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