Abstract

We report the generation of nanoseconds radiation at 177.3 nm with a maximum average power of 34.7 mW by second harmonic generation (SHG) in a 2.06-mm thick KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) crystal pumped with a homemade 4.2 W nanoseconds Nd: YAG laser at 355 nm operating at 10 KHz and 49 ns, which corresponds to an energy efficiency of ~0.826%. To our knowledge, it is the highest power generated at 177.3 nm. The dependence of phase matching angle of KBBF on temperature is presented for the first time. We also present the details on the measures for stable operation of a 4 mW nanosecond output at 177.3 nm with a lower pumping power in a thinner 1.37-mm KBBF crystal, and the stable output power is improved by about 20 times compared with previous results.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Suganuma, H. Kubo, O. Wakabayashi, H. Mizoguchi, K. Nakao, Y. Nabekawa, T. Togashi, and S. Watanabe, “157-nm coherent light source as an inspection tool for F(2) laser lithography,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 46–48 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Chen, J. Lu, T. Togashi, T. Suganuma, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation from a KBe(2) BO(3)F(2) crystal in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 637–639 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C.-T. Chen, “J. H. LÜ, G. L. Wang, Z. Y. Xu, J. Y. Wang, C. Q. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, “Deep ultraviolet Harmonic Generation with KBe2BO3F2 Crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(8), 1081 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Togashi, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, C. Chen, C. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light by an optically contacted, prism-coupled KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 254–256 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).
  10. L. Mei, C. He, and C. Chen, “Flux growth of KBe2BO3F2,” J. Cryst. Growth 132(3-4), 609–610 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. Experimental data provided by Acton Optics & Coatings, 2009.
  12. Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2008 (4)

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

C.-T. Chen, “J. H. LÜ, G. L. Wang, Z. Y. Xu, J. Y. Wang, C. Q. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, “Deep ultraviolet Harmonic Generation with KBe2BO3F2 Crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(8), 1081 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

L. Mei, C. He, and C. Chen, “Flux growth of KBe2BO3F2,” J. Cryst. Growth 132(3-4), 609–610 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bo, A.

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Chen, C

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

T. Togashi, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, C. Chen, C. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light by an optically contacted, prism-coupled KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Lu, T. Togashi, T. Suganuma, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation from a KBe(2) BO(3)F(2) crystal in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 637–639 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Mei, C. He, and C. Chen, “Flux growth of KBe2BO3F2,” J. Cryst. Growth 132(3-4), 609–610 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. T.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-T.

C.-T. Chen, “J. H. LÜ, G. L. Wang, Z. Y. Xu, J. Y. Wang, C. Q. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, “Deep ultraviolet Harmonic Generation with KBe2BO3F2 Crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(8), 1081 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cui, D.

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Cui, D. F.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deng, D.

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, X. L.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

He, C.

L. Mei, C. He, and C. Chen, “Flux growth of KBe2BO3F2,” J. Cryst. Growth 132(3-4), 609–610 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kanai, K.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kanai, T.

Kanetaka, F.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kiss, T.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kubo, H.

Li, C

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, C. M.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Liu, G.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G. D.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

Mei, L.

L. Mei, C. He, and C. Chen, “Flux growth of KBe2BO3F2,” J. Cryst. Growth 132(3-4), 609–610 (1993).
[Crossref]

Meng, J.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizoguchi, H.

Nabekawa, Y.

Nakao, K.

Onuki, Y.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peng, Q. J.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sekikawa, T.

Shimojima, T.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shin, S.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suganuma, T.

Tang, D.

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Togashi, T.

Wakabayashi, O.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Wang, G. L.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. Y.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

Wong, G. K.

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

T. Togashi, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, C. Chen, C. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light by an optically contacted, prism-coupled KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Lu, T. Togashi, T. Suganuma, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “Second-harmonic generation from a KBe(2) BO(3)F(2) crystal in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 637–639 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Y.

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ye, N.

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yokoya, T.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, C. Q.

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Zhang, J.-y.

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. J.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Guo, A. Bo, D. Cui, Z. Xu, R. Li, Y. Zhu, X. Wang, and C. Chen, “175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 93, 323–326 (2008).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, C. Chen, C Li, Y Zhu, Z Xu, and C Chen, “12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 95–97 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Chen, Z. Xu, D. Deng, J.-y. Zhang, G. K. Wong, B. Wu, N. Ye, and D. Tang, “The vacuum ultraviolet phase-matching characteristics of nonlinear optical KBe2BO3F2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2930–2932 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Zhou, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, C. T. Chen, G. D. Liu, X. L. Dong, and X. J. Zhou, “Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 963–965 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Chen, “J. H. LÜ, G. L. Wang, Z. Y. Xu, J. Y. Wang, C. Q. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, “Deep ultraviolet Harmonic Generation with KBe2BO3F2 Crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18(8), 1081 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

L. Mei, C. He, and C. Chen, “Flux growth of KBe2BO3F2,” J. Cryst. Growth 132(3-4), 609–610 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

T. Kiss, T. Shimojima, F. Kanetaka, K. Kanai, T. Yokoya, S. Shin, Y. Onuki, T. Togashi, C. Q. Zhang, C. T. Chen, and S. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of superconductors using a VUV laser,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 953–956 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, H. Liu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Dong, C. Chen, Z. Xu, and X. J. Zhou, “Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(2), 023105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Experimental data provided by Acton Optics & Coatings, 2009.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for generating nanosecond VUV at 177.3 nm by SHG in KBBF crystal, where LMs are diode-pumped laser modules, TFP is thin-film polarizer, AO is acousto-optical Q-switch, M1 is a highly reflective back mirror and M2 is output coupler at 1064nm, M3,M4 is reflective mirror at 355nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scheme of KBBF-PCD (a) old structure containing two identical prism; (b) newly designed PCD containing an input prism made of fused silica.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Outputs of the generated VUV radiation at 177.3 nm versus pumping power at 355 nm from two KBBF with different crystal thickness of 1.37 mm and 2.06 mm, respectively. The solid lines are the results of a second-order polynomial fitting.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured absorption coefficient of KBBF crystal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental data on normalized output power at 177.3nm vs. angle deviation from phase matching angle.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Phase matching angle variation versus variation of KBBF-PCD temperature.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The output power at 177.3 nm and the laser pumping power at 355 nm as a function of time.

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