Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) light diffraction in a uniform array of GaN nanocolumns arranged in a rectangular lattice dramatically enhanced the light intensity at a specific wavelength, indicating the function of 2D distributed feedback (DFB). Here a GaN rectangular-lattice nanocolumn array, which integrated InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the top region of the nanocolumns, was grown by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (rf-MBE). At a specific wavelength of 471.1 nm, the first observation of stimulated emission from 2D-DFB in an InGaN-based nanocolumn array was obtained. The specific wavelength is calculated by the 2D finite-difference time domain (2D-FDTD) method on the assumption of a refractive index dispersion of GaN; a simple expression for specific wavelength, which is a function of the array period L and the hexagon side length S of each nanocolumn, is proposed, which is convenient for producing a simple design of a GaN nanocolumn array structure in a square lattice.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask Selective-Area Growth of GaN by RF-Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy for Fabricating Regularly Arranged InGaN/GaN Nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.
  11. T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).
  12. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Highly collimated laser beams from electrically pumped SH GaAs/GaAlAs distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 48–50 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Kishino and S. Arai, Handbook of Semiconductor Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, edited by Y. Suematsu and A. R. Adams, Chap.11, Chapman & Hall, 1994.
  15. S. Nojima, “Polarization anisotropy of optical gain in two-dimensional photonic crystals with active lattice points,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L565–L567 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  20. N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).

2008 (3)

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask Selective-Area Growth of GaN by RF-Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy for Fabricating Regularly Arranged InGaN/GaN Nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. Nojima, “Polarization anisotropy of optical gain in two-dimensional photonic crystals with active lattice points,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L565–L567 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Highly collimated laser beams from electrically pumped SH GaAs/GaAlAs distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 48–50 (1975).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[Crossref]

Antoine-Vincent, N.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

K. Kishino and S. Arai, Handbook of Semiconductor Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, edited by Y. Suematsu and A. R. Adams, Chap.11, Chapman & Hall, 1994.

Beresford, R.

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brommer, K. D.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
[Crossref]

Burnham, R. D.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Highly collimated laser beams from electrically pumped SH GaAs/GaAlAs distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 48–50 (1975).
[Crossref]

Byrne, D.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Calarco, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Calle, F.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Calleja, E.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chutinan, A.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Disseix, P.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujita, N.

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

Garcia, M. A. S.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gutowski, J.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hardtdegen, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hersee, S. D.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hoshino, T.

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.

Imada, M.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ishizawa, S.

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.

Jahn, U.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jianglin, Y.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kaluza, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, A.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask Selective-Area Growth of GaN by RF-Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy for Fabricating Regularly Arranged InGaN/GaN Nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.

Kishino, K.

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask Selective-Area Growth of GaN by RF-Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy for Fabricating Regularly Arranged InGaN/GaN Nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.

K. Kishino and S. Arai, Handbook of Semiconductor Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, edited by Y. Suematsu and A. R. Adams, Chap.11, Chapman & Hall, 1994.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kouno, T.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).

Kushi, K.

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leymarie, J.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lüth, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, H.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meijers, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mihailovic, M.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Montanari, S.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Munoz, E.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Murata, M.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Naranjo, F. B.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

Natali, F.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nojima, S.

S. Nojima, “Polarization anisotropy of optical gain in two-dimensional photonic crystals with active lattice points,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L565–L567 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rappe, A. M.

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
[Crossref]

Saito, H.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, F. J.

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, G.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sasamoto, H.

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

Scifres, D. R.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Highly collimated laser beams from electrically pumped SH GaAs/GaAlAs distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 48–50 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sebald, K.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sekiguchi, H.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask Selective-Area Growth of GaN by RF-Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy for Fabricating Regularly Arranged InGaN/GaN Nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.

Semond, F.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Streifer, W.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Highly collimated laser beams from electrically pumped SH GaAs/GaAlAs distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 48–50 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thillosen, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tokuda, T.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vasson, A.

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoshimoto, S.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoshizawa, M.

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask Selective-Area Growth of GaN by RF-Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy for Fabricating Regularly Arranged InGaN/GaN Nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 152–154 (1971).
[Crossref]

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Highly collimated laser beams from electrically pumped SH GaAs/GaAlAs distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 48–50 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316–318 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44(13), 819 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Antoine-Vincent, F. Natali, M. Mihailovic, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, P. Disseix, D. Byrne, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Determination of the refractive indices of AlN, GaN, and AlxGa1-xN grown on (111)Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5222–5226 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. S. Garcia, E. Calleja, E. Monroy, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and R. Beresford, “The effect of the III/V ratio and substrate temperature on the morphology and properties of GaN- and AlN-layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 183(1–2), 23–30 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Nature of the photonic band-gap- some insights from a field analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(2), 328–332 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nojima, “Polarization anisotropy of optical gain in two-dimensional photonic crystals with active lattice points,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L565–L567 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Yoshizawa, A. Kikuchi, N. Fujita, K. Kushi, H. Sasamoto, and K. Kishino, “Self-organization of GaN nano-structures on c-Al2O3 by RF-radical gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L459 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Calleja, M. A. S. Garcia, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16826 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Stat. Sol. C (1)

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN nanorings by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6(S2), 52 (2009).

Science (1)

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Kishino and S. Arai, Handbook of Semiconductor Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, edited by Y. Suematsu and A. R. Adams, Chap.11, Chapman & Hall, 1994.

A. Kikuchi, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, H. Sekiguchi, and K. Kishino, “GaN nanowalls grown by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy” 2007 MRS Fall Meeting, Q4.6, Boston, MA, USA, November 26–30, 2007.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images; (a) bird’s-eye and (b) top views of typical regularly arranged GaN nanocolumns with 8-period InGaN/GaN MQWs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Low-excitation RT-PL spectra of 8-period InGaN/GaN MQWs, which were prepared on top of a GaN rectangular-lattice nanocolumn array (sample 1), and (b) light response spectrum for sample 1 calculated by the 2D-FDTD method.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Specific wavelength (λs) of GaN square-lattice nanocolumn arrays as a function of array period (L) calculated for TE mode by 2D-FDTD method. The parameter is the hexagonal side length of a nanocolumn (S). Stars indicate the experimental data (Table 1) and asterisks indicate the optical band edge wavelength calculated by 2D plane-wave expansion method.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) High-excitation RT-PL spectra, and (b) dependence of RT-PL emission peak intensity of an InGaN-based nanocolumn array (sample 1). The emission light was polarized in TE mode.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) High-excitation RT-PL spectra of sample 2, and light response spectrum for sample 2 calculated by the 2D-FDTD method. (b) Those for sample 3.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. RT-PL spectrum of sample 1 for one pulse excitation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specific wavelength and size of fabricated InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays

Equations (1)

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λsp=3.56×S+0.565×L(1).

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