Abstract

Accurately characterizing third order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) in high-linearity photodiodes is challenging. Two measurement techniques are evaluated–a standard two-tone measurement and a more complicated three-tone measurement technique to measure IMD3. A model of the measurement system is developed and used to analyze the limitations of the two techniques in determining the distortion of highly linear photodiodes. Experimental validation is provided by comparing the simulation trends with IMD3 results measured on two types of waveguide photodiodes: 1) an InP based uni-traveling-carrier (UTC) photodiode and 2) a Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetector on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodiode Non-linearity Limitations on a High Dynamic Range 3GHz Fiber Optic Link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(2), 192–199 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, “Design Considerations for High-Current Photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(8), 1443–1454 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. A. Tulchinsky, J. B. Boos, D. Park, P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabonovitch, and K. J. Williams, “High Current Photodetectors as Efficient, Linear and High-Power RF Ouput Stages,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(4), 408–416 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Codren, “Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes with >40 dBm OIP3 for up to 80 mA of Photocurrent,” Device Research Conference (DRC), Late News, (2008).
  7. A. Joshi, S. Datta, and D. Becker, “GRIN Lens Coupled Top Illuminated Highly Linear InGaAs Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1500–1502 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Measurement of Harmonic Distortion in Microwave Photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(7), 502–504 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Ozeki and E. Hara, “Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes,” Electron. Lett. 12(3), 80–81 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, M. Piels, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, J. Klamkin, A. Hastings, and K. J. Williams, “Experimental Analysis of Two Measurement Techniques to Characterize Photodiode Linearity,” presented at Intl. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, (2009).
  12. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Kikushima and H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion Due to Gain Tilt of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 945–947 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Courjal, J. M. Dudley, and H. Porte, “Extinction-ratio-independent method for chirp measurements of Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 12(3), 442–448 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Koyama and K. Oga, “Frequency Chirping in External Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).
  17. J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. A. Tulchinsky, J. B. Boos, D. Park, P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabonovitch, and K. J. Williams, “High Current Photodetectors as Efficient, Linear and High-Power RF Ouput Stages,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(4), 408–416 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Joshi, S. Datta, and D. Becker, “GRIN Lens Coupled Top Illuminated Highly Linear InGaAs Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1500–1502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Kikushima and H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion Due to Gain Tilt of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 945–947 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Measurement of Harmonic Distortion in Microwave Photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(7), 502–504 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. Koyama and K. Oga, “Frequency Chirping in External Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

T. Ozeki and E. Hara, “Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes,” Electron. Lett. 12(3), 80–81 (1976).
[Crossref]

Becker, D.

A. Joshi, S. Datta, and D. Becker, “GRIN Lens Coupled Top Illuminated Highly Linear InGaAs Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1500–1502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beling, A.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boos, J. B.

Bowers, J. E.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Chou, H.-F.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Courjal, N.

Dagenais, M.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
[Crossref]

Datta, S.

A. Joshi, S. Datta, and D. Becker, “GRIN Lens Coupled Top Illuminated Highly Linear InGaAs Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1500–1502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Denbaars, S. P.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Doi, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

Esman, R. D.

K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, “Design Considerations for High-Current Photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(8), 1443–1454 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodiode Non-linearity Limitations on a High Dynamic Range 3GHz Fiber Optic Link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(2), 192–199 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Measurement of Harmonic Distortion in Microwave Photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(7), 502–504 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fukano, H.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

Furuta, T.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Fushimi, H.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Goetz, P. G.

Hara, E.

T. Ozeki and E. Hara, “Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes,” Electron. Lett. 12(3), 80–81 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ishibashi, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Ito, H.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Johansson, L. A.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, S. Datta, and D. Becker, “GRIN Lens Coupled Top Illuminated Highly Linear InGaAs Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1500–1502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kikushima, K.

K. Kikushima and H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion Due to Gain Tilt of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 945–947 (1991).
[Crossref]

Klamkin, J.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kodama, S.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama and K. Oga, “Frequency Chirping in External Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Morse, M. M.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Muramoto, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Nichols, L. T.

Oga, K.

F. Koyama and K. Oga, “Frequency Chirping in External Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ohno, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ozeki, T.

T. Ozeki and E. Hara, “Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes,” Electron. Lett. 12(3), 80–81 (1976).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M. J.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

Parthasarathy, N.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Porte, H.

Rabonovitch, W. S.

Ramaswamy, A.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raring, J. W.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Shimzu, N.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Sysak, M. N.

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tulchinsky, D. A.

Williams, K. J.

Yin, T.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshimatsu, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yoshinaga, H.

K. Kikushima and H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion Due to Gain Tilt of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 945–947 (1991).
[Crossref]

E (1)

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimzu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveiling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 83-C, 938–949 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Ozeki and E. Hara, “Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes,” Electron. Lett. 12(3), 80–81 (1976).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

K. Kikushima and H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion Due to Gain Tilt of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 945–947 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Beling, H. Pan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “Measurement and Modeling of a High-Linearity Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1219–1221 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Joshi, S. Datta, and D. Becker, “GRIN Lens Coupled Top Illuminated Highly Linear InGaAs Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1500–1502 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, “Measurement of Intermodulation Distortion in a Unitraveling-Carrier Refracting-Facet Photodiode and a p-i-n Refracting-Facet Photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 375–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Measurement of Harmonic Distortion in Microwave Photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(7), 502–504 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, H.-F. Chou, M. N. Sysak, J. W. Raring, N. Parthasarathy, S. P. Denbaars, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “High Output Saturation and High-Linearity Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 149–151 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, M. J. Paniccia, and et al., “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, M. Piels, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, J. Klamkin, A. Hastings, and K. J. Williams, “Experimental Analysis of Two Measurement Techniques to Characterize Photodiode Linearity,” presented at Intl. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, (2009).

J. Klamkin, A. Ramaswamy, N. Nunoya, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Codren, “Uni-Traveling-Carrier Waveguide Photodiodes with >40 dBm OIP3 for up to 80 mA of Photocurrent,” Device Research Conference (DRC), Late News, (2008).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation Model: Three-tone measurement system
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated IMD3 and IMD2 (Pdc = 40mW) (a). linear optical source (b) non-linear optical source (modulator: Vπ = 5V; c2 = −0.01 and c3 = −0.001)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OIP3 dependence on nonlinear coefficients of PD (a) a2 dependence; (b) a3 dependence
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 OIP3 dependence on a3 of photodiode with (a) perfectly linear optical source (c2 , c3 = 0) ; (b) a2 / a1 = 0 but not a perfectly linear optical source (c2 / c1 = −0.01 and c3 / c1 = −0.001)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup: three-tone measurement
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a). Ilustration of IMD3 components in a three-tone experiment (b) Relation between two-tone & three-tone IP3
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Sample experimental plot from a three-tone measurement (photocurrent = 20mA)
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 OIP3 as a function of reverse bias (a) photocurrent = 20mA (b) photocurrent = 40mA
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Three-tone IMD3 measurement at 60mA (b) Comparison of Two-Tone and Three-Tone OIP3(with the 3dB correction factor)

Equations (5)

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P o u t = ( P i n 2 ) ( 1 ( π V π ) ( c 1 V R F + c 2 V R F 2 + c 3 V R F 3 + ... ) )
I R F = ( a 1 P R F + a 2 P R F 2 + a 3 P R F 3 + ... )
Fundamental(f i ) :    m + 15 h 3 4 ( m h 1 ) 3 m
IMD3(2f i -f k ):         3 h 3 4 ( m h 1 ) 3
IMD3(f i -f j +f k ):     6 h 3 4 ( m h 1 ) 3

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