Abstract

We demonstrate a controllable viewing angle liquid crystal display (LCD) using an inserted blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) cell. The BPLC layer functions as a tunable positive C-film or a negative C-film, depending on whether the employed LC has a positive or negative dielectric anisotropy. Therefore, the viewing angle of the LCD panel can be controlled continuously by the applied voltage of the BPLC cell.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Soref, “Transverse field effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(4), 165–166 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
  4. K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. 18th Int’l Display Research Conference, pp. 383–386 (1998).
  5. K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs”, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 37, 1425–1427 (2006).
  6. K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, “New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs”, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 37, 1340–1343 (2006).
  7. P. G. de Gennes, and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993).
  8. S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).
  11. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals, Editors: H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr. (Springer, New York, 2001).
  13. E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. E. Bigelow and R. A. Kashnow, “Poincaré sphere analysis of liquid crystal optics,” Appl. Opt. 16(8), 2090–2096 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Transverse field effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(4), 165–166 (1973).
[Crossref]

1875 (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).

Anderson, W. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bigelow, J. E.

Brinkman, W. F.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. M.

Choi, H. C.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical solutions for uniaxial-film-compensated wide-view liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 2(1), 2–20 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ho Park, K.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jeong, E.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiao, M.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kashnow, R. A.

Kerr, J.

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-D.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meiboom, S.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rhee, J. M.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sethna, J. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Transverse field effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(4), 165–166 (1973).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Xianyu, H.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. A. Soref, “Transverse field effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(4), 165–166 (1973).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. Ho Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (3)

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals, Editors: H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr. (Springer, New York, 2001).

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 29, 1077–1080 (1998).

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. 18th Int’l Display Research Conference, pp. 383–386 (1998).

K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs”, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 37, 1425–1427 (2006).

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, “New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs”, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 37, 1340–1343 (2006).

P. G. de Gennes, and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Electro-optical effect on BPLC refractive index ellipsoid: (a) BPLC without an electric field, (b) positive Δε BPLC with an electric field, and (c) negative Δε BPLC with an electric field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Device configuration for a viewing angle controllable LCD; (b) Poincaré sphere representation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Isocontrast plots of (a) an IPS-LCD without compensation film, and viewing angle controllable IPS with a biaxial film and a positive BPLC layer at (b) V=0, (c) V=5Vrms, (d) V=8Vrms, (e) V=10Vrms, and (f) V=20Vrms. λ=550nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Isocontrast plots of viewing angle controllable IPS cell with a negative BPLC layer at (a) V=5Vrms, (b) V=8Vrms, (c) V=10Vrms, and (d) V=20Vrms. λ=550 nm.

Equations (2)

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δ n = λ K E 2 .
d B P δ n = d B P λ K E 2 = d B P λ K ( V B P d B P ) 2 = λ K V B P 2 d B P .

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