Abstract

We find that an adaptive equalizer and a phase-locked loop operating with decision-directed mode exhibit degraded performances when they are used in a digital coherent receiver to demodulate a 16QAM signal with intrinsically distorted constellation, and that the degradation is more significant for the dual-polarization case. We then propose a scheme to correctly demodulate such a distorted 16QAM signal, where the reference constellation and the threshold for the decision are adaptively adjusted such that they fit to the distorted ones. We experimentally confirm the improved performance of the proposed scheme over the conventional one for single-and dual-polarization 16QAM signals with distortion. We also investigate the applicable range of the proposed scheme for the degree of distortion of the signal.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  10. S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1164–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, D. Lavery, C. Behrens, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Characterization of long-haul 112Gbit/s PDMQAM-16 transmission with and without digital nonlinearity compensation,” Opt. Express 18, 12939–12947 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

1989 (1)

Y. R. Shayan and T. Le-Ngoc, “All digital phase-locked loop: concepts, design and applications,” IEE Proc. 136F, 53–56 (1989).

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Baeyens, Y.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Bayvel, P.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Behrens, C.

Buhl, L. L.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Butrie, T.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Cameron, N.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Chen, Y.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Chiba, A.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, and M. Izutsu, “Study of precise optical modulation using Mach-Zehnder interferometers for advanced modulation formats,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), paper 6.2.3 (2007).

Corzine, S.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Dentai, A.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Evans, P.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Fisher, M.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Gavioli, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goldfarb, G.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

Hasama, T.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, K.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Izutsu, M.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, and M. Izutsu, “Study of precise optical modulation using Mach-Zehnder interferometers for advanced modulation formats,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), paper 6.2.3 (2007).

James, A.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kato, M.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, and M. Izutsu, “Study of precise optical modulation using Mach-Zehnder interferometers for advanced modulation formats,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), paper 6.2.3 (2007).

Kehayas, E.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Killey, R. I.

Kish, F.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Korn, D.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Kuntz, M.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Kurosu, T.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kurumida, J.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lal, V.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Lambert, D.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Lavery, D.

Le-Ngoc, T.

Y. R. Shayan and T. Le-Ngoc, “All digital phase-locked loop: concepts, design and applications,” IEE Proc. 136F, 53–56 (1989).

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Li, G.

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Magarini, M.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Makovejs, S.

Malendevich, R.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Masuda, H.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

McNicol, J.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Millar, D. S.

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Nagarajan, R.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Nakamura, M.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakatogawa, T.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, A.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Noé, R.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Keefe, M. F.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Oyamada, K.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Petermann, K.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Pfau, T.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

Rahn, J.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Reffle, M.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, and M. Izutsu, “Study of precise optical modulation using Mach-Zehnder interferometers for advanced modulation formats,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), paper 6.2.3 (2007).

Salehi, M.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

Samra, P.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Sano, A.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Savory, S. J.

Schindler, P. C.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmogrow, R. M.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Sethumadhavan, C.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Shayan, Y. R.

Y. R. Shayan and T. Le-Ngoc, “All digital phase-locked loop: concepts, design and applications,” IEE Proc. 136F, 53–56 (1989).

Stamatiadis, C.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Stampoulidis, L.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Stewart, J.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Tanizawa, K.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Tsai, H.-S.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Walker, R. G.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Welch, D.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.-T.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, H.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Yoshida, E.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

Zakynthinos, P.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Zhou, Y.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

Ziari, M.

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

IEE Proc. (1)

Y. R. Shayan and T. Le-Ngoc, “All digital phase-locked loop: concepts, design and applications,” IEE Proc. 136F, 53–56 (1989).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, J. Kurumida, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, T. Nakatogawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Oyamada, “Ultrahigh-definition video transmission and extremely green optical networks for future,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 446–457 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1164–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats.” Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, K. Ishihara, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamazaki, and T. Yamada, “160-Gb/s Polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM long-haul transmission over 3,123 km using digital coherent receiver with digital PLL based frequency offset compensator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuD1.
[Crossref]

F. Kish, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, V. Lal, M. Fisher, M. Kuntz, A. James, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, H.-S. Tsai, P. Samra, H. Sun, J. Stewart, T. Butrie, J. McNicol, K.-T. Wu, M. Reffle, and D. Welch, “Coherent large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2011), paper Mo.2.LeSaleve.5.
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.6.

D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. O’Keefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. M. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “First monolithic GaAs IQ electro-optic modulator, demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.4.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, and M. Izutsu, “Study of precise optical modulation using Mach-Zehnder interferometers for advanced modulation formats,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), paper 6.2.3 (2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup, (b) AEQ combined with PLL.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured BER (a) and EVM (b) for SP- and DP-16QAM signals with ideal and distorted constellations, demodulated by the conventional scheme. Constellations of the ideal SP-16QAM (c) and distorted SP-16QAM (d) with OSNR of 30 dB, and distorted DP-16QAM (e) with OSNR of 33 dB. Dotted lines in (c)–(e) represent the decision threshold.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Constellation diagrams for ideal (crosses) and distorted (points) 16QAM signals. (b) Schematic of adaptive adjustment process for a point in the reference constellation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured BER (a) and EVM (b) for SP- and DP-16QAM signals with ideal and distorted constellations, demodulated by the proposed scheme. Constellations of the ideal SP-16QAM (c) and distorted SP-16QAM (d) at OSNR with 30 dB, and distorted DP-16QAM (e) with OSNR of 33 dB. Dotted lines in (c)–(e) represent the decision threshold.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured EVM of DP-16QAM signals with different degree of distortion, demodulated with (a) and without (b) the proposed scheme.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Reference constellations of a distorted 16QAM signal (open circles) and their average position (closed) for each quadrant. (b) Relationship between RIQ obtained from the reference constellations and the voltage setting of AWG for the quadrature component.

Equations (7)

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E V M rms = [ 1 N n = 1 N r ( x n ) x n 2 1 M m = 1 M r m 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
r n + 1 = r n + μ ( x n r n ) ,
J = E [ r x n 2 ]
r n + 1 = r n μ 1 2 J n r n ,
θ I Q = cos 1 P 1 P 2 P 1 P 4 | P 1 P 2 | | P 1 P 4 | ,
R I Q = | P 1 P 4 | | P 1 P 2 | .
r n + 1 = r n + μ k = 1 P ( x n ( k ) r n ) ,

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