Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel modulation scheme called superposed pulse amplitude modulation (SPAM) which is low-cost, insensitive to non-linearity of light emitting diode (LED). Multiple optical pulses transmit parallelly from different spatial position in the LED array and overlap linearly in free space to realize SPAM. With LED arrangement, the experimental results show that using the modulation we proposed the data rate of 120 Mbit/s with BER 1 × 10−3 can be achieved with an optical blue filter and RC post-equalization.

©2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED

Yuanquan Wang, Yiguang Wang, Nan Chi, Jianjun Yu, and Huiliang Shang
Opt. Express 21(1) 1203-1208 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. IEEE 802.15 Working Group for WPAN, “IEEE Short-Range Wireless Optical Communication Using Visual Light,” (2011), http://www.ieee802.org/15/ .
  3. Y. F. Liu, C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, Y. L. Liu, and H. K. Tsang, “Demonstration of bi-directional LED visible light communication using TDD traffic with mitigation of reflection interference,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23019–23024 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. T. Huang and Y. F. Ji, “Design and demonstration of room division multiplexing-based hybrid VLC network,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(6), 060603 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).
  7. O. M. E. G. A. Deliverables, “Physical layer and specification (Smart Wireless Optical Demonstrator 2),” (OMEGA, 2011). http://www.ict-omega.eu/publications/deliverables.html
  8. J. Grubor, S. Randel, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(24), 3883–3892 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Green and Non-Fiber Applications (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-OThH3 .
  11. J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(24), 3512–3518 (2010).
  12. T. Fath, C. Heller, and H. Haas, “Optical Wireless Transmitter Employing Discrete Power Level Stepping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(11), 1734–1743 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. I. Ahn and J. K. Kwon, “capacity analysis of M-PAM inverse source coding in visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(10), 1399–1404 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Y. Yang, X. Li, and T. Jiang, “Enhancement of LED indoor communications using OPPM-PWM modulation and grouped bit-flipping decoding,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10170–10179 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, S. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Network Optical Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 2011), pp. 32–35.
  17. W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(18), 2948–2954 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Fath, H. Haas, M. Di Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial Modulation Applied to Optical Wireless Communications in Indoor LOS Environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM, Houston, 2011), pp.1–5.
    [Crossref]
  19. W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Error Performance of Generalised Space Shift Keying for Indoor Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61(5), 1968–1976 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (6)

2011 (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(24), 3512–3518 (2010).

2009 (1)

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(24), 3883–3892 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Ahn, K. I.

Chow, C. W.

Coltrin, M. E.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fath, T.

Faulkner, G.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Grubor, J.

Gyongyosi, L.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Error Performance of Generalised Space Shift Keying for Indoor Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61(5), 1968–1976 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Fath, C. Heller, and H. Haas, “Optical Wireless Transmitter Employing Discrete Power Level Stepping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(11), 1734–1743 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(18), 2948–2954 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hanzo, L.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heller, C.

Huang, P. Y.

Huang, Z. T.

Imre, S.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y. F.

Jiang, T.

Jung, D.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Kottke, C.

Kwon, J. K.

Langer, K. D.

Lee, K.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Li, X.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. F.

Liu, Y. L.

Mesleh, R.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Nerreter, S.

O’Brien, D.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Oh, Y.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y. J.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Popoola, W. O.

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Error Performance of Generalised Space Shift Keying for Indoor Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61(5), 1968–1976 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(18), 2948–2954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poves, E.

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Error Performance of Generalised Space Shift Keying for Indoor Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61(5), 1968–1976 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(18), 2948–2954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

Rupp, M.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. A.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vucic, J.

Walewski, J. W.

Wo, E. T.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Yang, A. Y.

Yeh, C. H.

Zeng, L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Wo, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. O. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, “Error Performance of Generalised Space Shift Keying for Indoor Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61(5), 1968–1976 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (2)

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless Myths, Realities, and Futures: From 3G/4G to Optical and Quantum Wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100(13), 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-State Lighting: An Integrated Human Factors, Technology, and Economic Perspective,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1162–1179 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 74640B (2008).

Other (5)

O. M. E. G. A. Deliverables, “Physical layer and specification (Smart Wireless Optical Demonstrator 2),” (OMEGA, 2011). http://www.ict-omega.eu/publications/deliverables.html

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Green and Non-Fiber Applications (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThH3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-OThH3 .

IEEE 802.15 Working Group for WPAN, “IEEE Short-Range Wireless Optical Communication Using Visual Light,” (2011), http://www.ieee802.org/15/ .

T. Fath, H. Haas, M. Di Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial Modulation Applied to Optical Wireless Communications in Indoor LOS Environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM, Houston, 2011), pp.1–5.
[Crossref]

E. Cho, J. H. Choi, C. Park, M. Kang, S. Shin, Z. Ghassemlooy, and C. G. Lee, “NRZ-OOK signaling with LED dimming for visible light communication link,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Network Optical Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 2011), pp. 32–35.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic of SPAM modulation scheme
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Proposed LED arrangement for optical wireless transmitter
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The measurement of illumination distribution (a) The distribution of Tx1. (b) The distribution of Tx2. (c) The distribution of Tx1 + Tx2. (d) All the LED chips turning on.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup of LED communication.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The EOE channel response of measured (circle), fitted curve (solid line) and equalized by 1st order equalizer (dashed line).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measurements of the bit-error ratio and eye diagram depending on the bit rate
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 BER at various points on a plane at 0.5 m range for spacing = 14 cm. (a) The BER distribution of 100 Mbit/s. (b) 120 Mbit/s.

Metrics