Abstract

Graphene can be utilized in designing tunable terahertz devices due to its tunability of sheet conductivity. In this paper, we combine the metamaterial having unit cell of cross-shaped metallic resonator with the double layer graphene wires to realize polarization independent absorber with spectral tuning at terahertz frequency. The absorption performance with a peak frequency tuning range of 15% and almost perfect peak absorption has been demonstrated by controlling the Fermi energy of the graphene that can be conveniently achieved by adjusting the bias voltage on the graphene double layers. The mechanism of the proposed absorber has been explored by a transmission line model and the tuning is explained by the changing of the effective inductance of the graphene wires under gate voltage biasing. Further more, we also propose a polarization modulation scheme of terahertz wave by applying similar polarization dependent absorbers. Through the proposed polarization modulator, it is able to electrically control the reflected wave with a linear polarization of continuously tunable azimuth angle of the major axis from 0° to 90° at the working frequency. These design approaches enable us to electrically control the absorption spectrum and the polarization state of terahertz waves more flexibly.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081106 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci Rep 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (8)

K. Iwaszczuk, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and P. U. Jepsen, “Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 20(1), 635–643 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Kuznetsov, A. G. Paulish, A. V. Gelfand, P. A. Lazorskiy, and V. N. Fedorinin, “Matrix Structure of Metamaterial Absorbers for Multispectral Terahertz Imaging,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 122, 93–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hussain, J. M. Woo, and J.-H. Jang, “Dual-band terahertz metamaterials based on nested split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091103 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Song and T. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Tran. Terahertz Science and Technology 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospects,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions for an anisotropic, non-local model of biased graphene,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(3), 747–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar Wallpaper Group Metamaterials for Novel Terahertz Applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Sirtori, “Applied physics: Bridge for the terahertz gap,” Nature 417(6885), 132–133 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alaee, R.

Alù, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Terahertz metamaterial devices based on graphene nanostructures,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andryieuski, A.

Averitt, R. D.

K. Iwaszczuk, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and P. U. Jepsen, “Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 20(1), 635–643 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar Wallpaper Group Metamaterials for Novel Terahertz Applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar Wallpaper Group Metamaterials for Novel Terahertz Applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Terahertz metamaterial devices based on graphene nanostructures,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, M. T.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci Rep 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fal’ko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).

Farhat, M.

Fedorinin, V. N.

S. A. Kuznetsov, A. G. Paulish, A. V. Gelfand, P. A. Lazorskiy, and V. N. Fedorinin, “Matrix Structure of Metamaterial Absorbers for Multispectral Terahertz Imaging,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 122, 93–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y. J.

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospects,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, G. P.

G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

Woo, J. M.

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081106 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hussain, J. M. Woo, and J.-H. Jang, “Dual-band terahertz metamaterials based on nested split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci Rep 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B. Z.

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).

Yang, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci Rep 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yin, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. M.

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Hussain, J. M. Woo, and J.-H. Jang, “Dual-band terahertz metamaterials based on nested split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091103 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081106 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Tran. Terahertz Science and Technology (1)

H.-J. Song and T. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Tran. Terahertz Science and Technology 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions for an anisotropic, non-local model of biased graphene,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(3), 747–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. (1)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Terahertz metamaterial devices based on graphene nanostructures,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

C. Sirtori, “Applied physics: Bridge for the terahertz gap,” Nature 417(6885), 132–133 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Z. Xu, C. Q. Gu, Z. Li, and Z. Y. Niu, “A novel structure for tunable terahertz absorber based on graphene,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23803–23811 (2013).
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R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
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J. S. Gómez-Díaz and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Graphene-based plasmonic switches at near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15490–15504 (2013).
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H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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K. Iwaszczuk, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and P. U. Jepsen, “Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 20(1), 635–643 (2012).
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C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar Wallpaper Group Metamaterials for Novel Terahertz Applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
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Prog. Electromagn. Res. B (1)

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

S. A. Kuznetsov, A. G. Paulish, A. V. Gelfand, P. A. Lazorskiy, and V. N. Fedorinin, “Matrix Structure of Metamaterial Absorbers for Multispectral Terahertz Imaging,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 122, 93–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci Rep (1)

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci Rep 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (2)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospects,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the unit cell (left) and the structure of the proposed graphene based MA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Resonant absorption of the proposed MA in the lower terahertz region tuned by the Fermi energy of the graphene film. For comparison, absorption spectrum of the absorber without graphene is also shown with the dashed line.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectrum under different oblique incidence angles of TM-polarized ((a) and (c)), and TE polarized ((b) and (d)) waves. The Fermi energy EF is kept as 0 eV ((a) and (b)), or 0.5 eV ((c) and (d)) by different voltage biasing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectra of the polarization dependent MA under different Fermi energy (a) and the corresponding equivalent transmission line circuit model (b). The surface current on the microstrip resonator without graphene wires (c) and with graphene wires at Fermi energy of 0.5eV (d). The black curve indicates the current distribution for the fundamental resonant mode (c), or that for the second-order resonant mode (d), respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The effective inductance of a short graphene strip (black), as well as the simulated (blue) and analyzed resonance absorption frequency (red) of the polarization dependent absorber as a function of Fermi energy of the graphene.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The schematic of the structure for the proposed polarization modulator.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated magnitude ((a), (c)) and phase ((b), (d)) of the reflection coefficient under normal incidence of x-polarized ((a), (b)) or y-polarized ((c), (d)) wave by tuning Fermi energy of graphene wires along x-axis or along y-axis, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Polarization azimuth angle distribution (a), and the corresponding axial ratio distribution (b) under different bias voltages.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The modulation of the azimuth angle θ (upper) of the major polarization axis upon square wave modulation signals (lower) applied on the gated structures along x-axis (blue) and y-axis (red) simultaneously.

Equations (7)

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σ S = σ i n t r a ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) + σ i n t e r ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) ,
σ i n t r a ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) = j e 2 k B T π 2 ( ω j 2 Γ ) ( μ c k B T + 2 In ( e μ c / k B T + 1 ) ) ,
σ inter ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) j e 2 4 π In ( 2 | μ c | ( ω j 2 Γ ) 2 | μ c | + ( ω j 2 Γ ) ) ,
E F = μ c ν f π ε r ε 0 V g e t s ,
l + 2 Δ l = λ g 2 = c 2 f m ε e f f ,
l + 2 Δ l = λ g = c f m ε e f f ,
Im ( 1 R g + j ω L g ) + Im ( Z 0 ω L g tan ( β l ) + j R g tan ( β l ) Z 0 R g + j ( ω L g Z 0 + Z 0 2 tan ( β l ) ) ) = 0 ,

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