Abstract

Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with annealing temperature is observed. It is shown that the evolution is due to the changes in both the band gap and the free-electron absorption as a result of the change of free-electron concentration of the AZO thin films. The change of the electron concentration could be attributed to the activation of Al dopant and the creation/annihilation of the donor-like defects like oxygen vacancy in the thin films caused by annealing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 38–44 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 71(7), 75109–75118 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Walsh, J. L. F. Da Silva, and S.-H. Wei, “Origins of band-gap renormalization in degenerately doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075211 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “Effects of free electrons and quantum confinement in ultrathin ZnO films: a comparison between undoped and Al-doped ZnO,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14131–14138 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. S. Kim and B.-T. Lee, “Effects of oxygen pressure on the growth of pulsed laser deposited ZnO films on Si(0 0 1),” Thin Solid Films 446(2), 307–312 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. dielectric constant and conductivity of mixtures of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 24, 636–664 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
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  16. S. Adachi, Optical Properties of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: Materials and Fundamental Principles (Kluwer Academic, 1999), Chap. 1.
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    [Crossref]
  18. D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5763 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Fox, Optical Properties of Solids (Oxford, 2001), Chap. 2.
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    [Crossref]
  21. B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. D. Mahan, “Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3825–3832 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Walsh, J. L. F. Da Silva, and S.-H. Wei, “Origins of band-gap renormalization in degenerately doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075211 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 71(7), 75109–75118 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kim and B.-T. Lee, “Effects of oxygen pressure on the growth of pulsed laser deposited ZnO films on Si(0 0 1),” Thin Solid Films 446(2), 307–312 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 38–44 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5763 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

G. D. Mahan, “Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3825–3832 (1983).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

J. G. Gay, “Screening of Excitons in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 4(8), 2567–2575 (1971).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. dielectric constant and conductivity of mixtures of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 24, 636–664 (1935).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alves, H.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bai, X. D.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bertram, F.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. dielectric constant and conductivity of mixtures of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 24, 636–664 (1935).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. P.

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “Effects of free electrons and quantum confinement in ultrathin ZnO films: a comparison between undoped and Al-doped ZnO,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14131–14138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christen, J.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Da Silva, J. L. F.

A. Walsh, J. L. F. Da Silva, and S.-H. Wei, “Origins of band-gap renormalization in degenerately doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075211 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, M.

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dworzak, M.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z. C.

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Forster, D.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 71(7), 75109–75118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gay, J. G.

J. G. Gay, “Screening of Excitons in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 4(8), 2567–2575 (1971).
[Crossref]

Haboeck, U.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

He, H. P.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, D. M.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, R. F.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, K.

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jogai, B.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.-R.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamada, Y.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. S.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. S.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kawaharamura, T.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, M.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-K.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim and B.-T. Lee, “Effects of oxygen pressure on the growth of pulsed laser deposited ZnO films on Si(0 0 1),” Thin Solid Films 446(2), 307–312 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-W.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kishimoto, S.

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kodama, R.

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koinuma, H.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kondo, M.

H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 71(7), 75109–75118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kresse, G.

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kriegseis, W.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lan, H.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.-T.

S. S. Kim and B.-T. Lee, “Effects of oxygen pressure on the growth of pulsed laser deposited ZnO films on Si(0 0 1),” Thin Solid Films 446(2), 307–312 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-M.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lennon, C.

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leong, K. C.

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “Effects of free electrons and quantum confinement in ultrathin ZnO films: a comparison between undoped and Al-doped ZnO,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14131–14138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “Effects of free electrons and quantum confinement in ultrathin ZnO films: a comparison between undoped and Al-doped ZnO,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14131–14138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, P.

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “Effects of free electrons and quantum confinement in ultrathin ZnO films: a comparison between undoped and Al-doped ZnO,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14131–14138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “Effects of free electrons and quantum confinement in ultrathin ZnO films: a comparison between undoped and Al-doped ZnO,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14131–14138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mahan, G. D.

G. D. Mahan, “Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3825–3832 (1983).
[Crossref]

Makino, H.

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Makino, T.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meyer, B. K.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Minami, T.

T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 38–44 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nam, S.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Niki, S.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nishinaka, H.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oba, F.

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohshima, T.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ohtomo, A.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paier, J.

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pang, A.

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pei, Z. L.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, D. C.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5763 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rodina, A. V.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Segawa, Y.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seong, T.-Y.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sivananthan, S.

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-O.

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Straßburg, M.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, I.

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Togo, A.

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tong, H.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsukazaki, A.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tu, Y.-L.

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walsh, A.

A. Walsh, J. L. F. Da Silva, and S.-H. Wei, “Origins of band-gap renormalization in degenerately doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075211 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wei, S.-H.

A. Walsh, J. L. F. Da Silva, and S.-H. Wei, “Origins of band-gap renormalization in degenerately doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075211 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wen, L. S.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z. Z.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, S.

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, H.

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y. H.

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y. J.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Z.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B. H.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. P.

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Calculation of various physical constants of heterogeneous substances. I. dielectric constant and conductivity of mixtures of isotropic substances,” Ann. Phys. 24, 636–664 (1935).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Kim, W. Lee, D.-R. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, and B. Park, “Optical and electronic properties of post-annealed ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

M. Chen, X. Wang, Y. H. Yu, Z. L. Pei, X. D. Bai, C. Sun, R. F. Huang, and L. S. Wen, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1-2), 134–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, Z. Z. Ye, Y. J. Zeng, Y. Z. Zhang, L. P. Zhu, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n-type ZnO:Al films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083705 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. D. Mahan, “Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3825–3832 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5763 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. D. Li, T. P. Chen, P. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and K. C. Leong, “A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103512 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Lennon, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, and M. Deshpande, “Effects of annealing in N2 on sputtered Al-doped ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(3), 1641–1645 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

K.-K. Kim, J.-O. Song, T.-Y. Seong, S.-J. Park, J.-M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S. Fujita, and S. Niki, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Al doped n-ZnO films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7A), 4776–4779 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Makino, Y. Segawa, S. Yoshida, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, M. Kawasaki, and H. Koinuma, “Free-carrier effects on zero- and one-phonon absorption onsets of n-type ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7275–7280 (2005).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 38–44 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 71(7), 75109–75118 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Walsh, J. L. F. Da Silva, and S.-H. Wei, “Origins of band-gap renormalization in degenerately doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075211 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Oba, A. Togo, I. Tanaka, J. Paier, and G. Kresse, “Defect energetics in ZnO: a hybrid hartree-fock density functional study,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245202 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. G. Gay, “Screening of Excitons in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 4(8), 2567–2575 (1971).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (b) (1)

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (b) 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

S. Kishimoto, T. Yamada, K. Ikeda, H. Makino, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of oxygen partial pressure on film growth and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films with thickness below 100 nm,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(7), 4000–4003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. S. Kim and B.-T. Lee, “Effects of oxygen pressure on the growth of pulsed laser deposited ZnO films on Si(0 0 1),” Thin Solid Films 446(2), 307–312 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Liu, A. Pang, Y.-L. Tu, and Z. C. Feng, “Room temperature deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and effects of thermal annealing,” Thin Solid Films 519(1), 31–36 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

S. Adachi, Optical Properties of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: Materials and Fundamental Principles (Kluwer Academic, 1999), Chap. 1.

M. Fox, Optical Properties of Solids (Oxford, 2001), Chap. 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SE spectral fittings of the as-deposited (a) and annealed (RTP 500°C) (b) AZO thin films deposited on SiO2 buffer layer. SEM images of the thin films are also shown in the figure. The dash lines are used to show the blue shift of the spectra due to the annealing at 500°C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Real part ( ε 1 ) and imaginary part ( ε 2 ) of the complex dielectric function, which are obtained from the SE spectral fittings, of the AZO thin films annealed at the temperatures of 400-550°C (a) or 500-700°C (b). The arrow indicates the increase of annealing temperature. The complex dielectric function of the as-deposited AZO thin film is also included for comparison.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison between the calculated electron concentration ( N o p t ) and measured electron concentration ( N H a l l ) of AZO films as a function of annealing temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Average band gap energy of AZO thin films as a function of annealing temperature. The band gap energy of the as-deposited AZO thin film is also included for comparison.

Equations (7)

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ε ( E ) = ε int e r ( E ) + ε D r u d e ( E ) .
ε int e r ( E ) = ε C P ( E ) + ε L Z ( E ) .
ε C P ( E ) = α = A , B , C A 0 α c p E g α 1.5 f ( χ 0 α ) .
χ 0 α = ( E + i Γ 0 α c p ) / E g α .
ε L Z ( E ) = A L Z E t 2 E 2 i Γ L Z E .
ε D r u d e ( E ) = ε A D E 2 + i Γ D E .
E p = ( 2 e 2 N o p t m * ε ε 0 ) 1 / 2 .

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