Abstract

We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Broadband parametric multicasting via four-mode phase-sensitive interaction,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19363–19373 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 1461 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, “In-line optical phase-sensitive amplifier employing pump laser injection locked to input signal light,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1982 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 37(1), 10–21 (1949).

Alic, N.

Andrekson, P. A.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[Crossref]

Corcoran, B.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devgan, P. S.

Gallion, P.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grigoryan, V. S.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hallam, W. J.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 1461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Imajuku, W.

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, “In-line optical phase-sensitive amplifier employing pump laser injection locked to input signal light,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jackson, M. K.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 1461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kakande, J.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P.

Kuo, B. P. P.

Kylemark, P.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[Crossref]

Levenson, J. A.

Lovering, D. J.

Lundström, C.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, R.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mazroa, D.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Movassaghi, M.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 1461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

Olsson, S. L. I.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parmigiani, F.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phelan, R.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

Richardson, D. J.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 37(1), 10–21 (1949).

Shinada, S.

Slavík, R.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, V. M.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 1461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Syvridis, D.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takada, A.

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, “In-line optical phase-sensitive amplifier employing pump laser injection locked to input signal light,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 274–276 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tang, R.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Broadband parametric multicasting via four-mode phase-sensitive interaction,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19363–19373 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tucker, R. S.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vasilyev, M.

Vidakovic, P.

Wada, N.

Webjörn, J.

Wiberg, A. O. J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 1461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 25(3), 234–237 (2013).
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[Crossref]

S. L. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, “Optical injection-locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitively amplified links,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. OW3C. Optical Society of America, (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Malik, S. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, C. Lundström, and M. Karlsson, “Record-high sensitivity receiver using phase sensitive fiber optical parametric amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th2A–54. Optical Society of America, (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental set-up for the spectrally resolved NF measurement of the PSA and PIA. IM: intensity modulator; PM: phase modulator; OP: Optical Processor; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PSA: phase-sensitive amplifier; DUT: device under test; PLL: phase-locked loop; ESA: electrical spectrum analyzer; CM: current meter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Frequency resolved NF measurements for EDFA, phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frequency resolved NF measurements for PSA with different signal input powers with a pump OSNRp of 55 dB (a) and a pump OSNRp of 40 dB (b). The insets show a zoomed in version from 0.03 to 0.14 GHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Frequency resolved NF measurements for PIA with different signal input powers with a OSNRp of 55 dB (a) and a OSNRp of 40 dB (b). The insets show a zoomed in version from 0.03 to 0.14 GHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectrally averaged NF vs. signal input powers for two values of OSNRp (55 and 40 dB) for the PSA (left) and for the PIA (right). Solid lines depict the theory while the symbols depict the measurements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Frequency-resolved NF for OSNRp = 40, 45, 50, and 55 dB at different signal input power settings. The top figure is for −36 dBm, and −42 dBm signal input powers for PIA and PSA case respectively, while the bottom figure for −30.0 dBm signal input power for both PS and PI modes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PS FOPA output spectra for 40 dB (blue solid curve), and 50 dB (red dashed curve) OSNRp.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectrally averaged NF vs. OSNRp for two values of Ps. Solid lines depict the theory while the symbols depict the measurements. Left figure depicts the PSA case while the right one depicts the PIA case.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Frequency-resolved NF measurements with different pump powers for PI (a and c) and PS (b and d) modes. The signal powers were: −30 dBm (a and b), −36 dBm (c) and −42 dBm (d).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental set-up used to test the effect of injection locking on the NF. IM: intensity modulator; PM: phase modulator; OP: optical processor; IL: injection locking; SL: slave laser; VDL: variable delay line.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Frequency-resolved NF measurement for different input powers to slave laser (a), spectrally averaged NF vs input power to slave laser (b), and locking range vs input power to slave laser (c).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Frequency-resolved NF measurement of idler in PS mode (left) and frequency-resolved NF measurement in PS mode with pump phase dithering using a 300 MHz tone (right).

Equations (3)

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N F = N F A Q N + N F P T N ,
N F P T N = 2 P s P p 2 ( d G P S d P p ) 2 O S N R p G P S 2 Δ v A S E h v s ,
N F P T N = 2 P s ln 2 ( 4 G P I κ ) O S N R p Δ ν A S E h ν s .

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