Abstract

We report on the fabrication of three-dimensional waveguide beam splitters in a dielectric Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) crystal by direct femtosecond laser writing. In the laser written tracks of BGO crystal, positive refractive index is induced, resulting in so-called Type I configuration waveguiding cores. The “multiscan” technique is utilized to shape cores with designed cross-sectional geometry in order to achieve guidance at mid-infrared wavelength of 4 μm. The fundamental mode guidance along both TE and TM polarizations has been obtained in the waveguide structures. With this feature, we implement beam splitters from 2D to 3D geometries, and realize 1 × 2, 1 × 3, and 1 × 4 power splitting at 4μm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

T. Calmano and S. Müller, “Crystalline waveguide lasers in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602213 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. C. Righini and A. Chiappini, “Glass optical waveguides: a review of fabrication techniques,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071819 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers: reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Jipa, and M. Zamfirescu, “Diode-laser pumping into the emitting level for efficient lasing of depressed cladding waveguides realized in Nd:YVO4 by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23057–23065 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Cladding waveguides realized in Nd:YAG ceramic by direct femtosecond-laser writing with a helical movement technique,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 790–797 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2,333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (5)

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392–394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Song, Y. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang, “Broad-band power divider based on radial waveguide,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(3), 595–597 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1840–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, N. Tansu, and L. J. Mawst, “InP-Based Dilute-Nitride Mid-Infrared Type-II ‘W’ Quantum-Well Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(8), 4653–4655 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akhmadaliev, Sh.

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

An, Q.

Arezki, B.

Armani, A. M.

Bányász, I.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beecher, S.

Beecher, S. J.

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2,333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, and A. K. Kar, “Compact mid-infrared Cr:ZnSe channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berkowski, M.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berneschi, S.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berneschid, S.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berry, P. A.

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2,333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, and A. K. Kar, “Compact mid-infrared Cr:ZnSe channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bookey, H. T.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brown, G.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano and S. Müller, “Crystalline waveguide lasers in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cantelar, E.

Castillo-Vega, G. R.

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Y. He, Q. An, Y. C. Jia, G. R. Castillo-Vega, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of lithium niobate depressed cladding waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1378–1384 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Y. He, Q. An, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser micromachined optical waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystals,” Appl. Opt. 52(16), 3713–3718 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, C. Zhang, F. Chen, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Q. Zhou, “Planar optical waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal fabricated by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 50(36), 6678–6681 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers: reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiappini, A.

G. C. Righini and A. Chiappini, “Glass optical waveguides: a review of fabrication techniques,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071819 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, D.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cussó, F.

Darby, M. S. B.

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Domingo, C.

Drozdowski, W.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eason, R. W.

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fan, Y.

K. Song, Y. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang, “Broad-band power divider based on radial waveguide,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(3), 595–597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fried, M.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gazia, R.

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grivas, C.

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

He, R. Y.

Hirao, K.

Honkanen, S.

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

Jha, A.

Jia, Y. C.

Jipa, F.

Jose, G.

Kaczmarek, S. M.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kar, A.

Kar, A. K.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2,333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, and A. K. Kar, “Compact mid-infrared Cr:ZnSe channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, “High-contrast step-index waveguides in borate nonlinear laser crystals by 3D laser writing,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17820–17833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kern, P.

Khánh, N. Q.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kip, D.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Labadie, L.

Lancaster, A.

Lancaster, D. G.

Lengyel, K.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lobino, M.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lohner, T.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lopez, C.

Lu, Q. M.

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macdonald, J. R.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2,333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, and A. K. Kar, “Compact mid-infrared Cr:ZnSe channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maker, A. J.

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martin, G.

Mawst, L. J.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, N. Tansu, and L. J. Mawst, “InP-Based Dilute-Nitride Mid-Infrared Type-II ‘W’ Quantum-Well Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(8), 4653–4655 (2004).
[Crossref]

May-Smith, T. C.

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, N. Tansu, and L. J. Mawst, “InP-Based Dilute-Nitride Mid-Infrared Type-II ‘W’ Quantum-Well Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(8), 4653–4655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirov, S. B.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Müller, S.

T. Calmano and S. Müller, “Crystalline waveguide lasers in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nunzi-Conti, G.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pavel, N.

Pelli, S.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Péter, Á.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrik, P.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Psaila, N.

Psaila, N. D.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Quintanilla, M.

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y. Y.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini and A. Chiappini, “Glass optical waveguides: a review of fabrication techniques,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071819 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rodenas, A.

Ródenas, A.

Rodríguez, E. M.

Sakakura, M.

Salamu, G.

Sawano, T.

Schepler, K. L.

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2,333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, and A. K. Kar, “Compact mid-infrared Cr:ZnSe channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shandarov, V. M.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, D. P.

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, K.

K. Song, Y. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang, “Broad-band power divider based on radial waveguide,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(3), 595–597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers: reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, N. Tansu, and L. J. Mawst, “InP-Based Dilute-Nitride Mid-Infrared Type-II ‘W’ Quantum-Well Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(8), 4653–4655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tervonen, A.

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R.

Thomson, R. R.

R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, N. Tansu, and L. J. Mawst, “InP-Based Dilute-Nitride Mid-Infrared Type-II ‘W’ Quantum-Well Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(8), 4653–4655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. L.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watterich, A.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

West, B. R.

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. J. Withford, T. M. Monro, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.9 μm fluorozirconate glass waveguide chip laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2588–2591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wojtowicz, A. J.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Zamfirescu, M.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, Y. H.

K. Song, Y. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang, “Broad-band power divider based on radial waveguide,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(3), 595–597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S. Q.

Zolnai, Z.

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, and A. K. Kar, “Compact mid-infrared Cr:ZnSe channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161110 (2013).
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R. Osellame, M. Lobino, N. Chiodo, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, H. T. Bookey, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, and A. K. Kar, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in periodically poled lithium niobate preserving the nonlinear coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241107 (2007).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. W. Eason, T. C. May-Smith, C. Grivas, M. S. B. Darby, D. P. Shepherd, and R. Gazia, “Current state-of-the-art of pulsed laser deposition of optical waveguide structures: Existing capabilities and future trends,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5199–5205 (2009).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Calmano and S. Müller, “Crystalline waveguide lasers in the visible and near-infrared spectral range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602213 (2015).
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I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, N. Tansu, and L. J. Mawst, “InP-Based Dilute-Nitride Mid-Infrared Type-II ‘W’ Quantum-Well Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(8), 4653–4655 (2004).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. Wang, V. M. Shandarov, and D. Kip, “Formation of reconfigurable optical channel waveguides and beam splitters on top of proton-implanted lithium niobate crystals using spatial dark soliton-like structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 102001 (2008).
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Lab Chip (1)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip 12(4), 746–749 (2012).
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F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
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F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
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K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers: reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
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K. Song, Y. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang, “Broad-band power divider based on radial waveguide,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49(3), 595–597 (2007).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
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Nucl. Instr. Meth. B (1)

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

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G. C. Righini and A. Chiappini, “Glass optical waveguides: a review of fabrication techniques,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071819 (2014).
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Opt. Express (5)

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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Physica B (1)

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405(6), 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Bányász, Z. Zolnai, S. Pelli, S. Berneschid, M. Fried, T. Lohner, G. Nunzi-Conti, and G. C. Righini, “Single- and double-energy N+ - irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine and sillenite type BGO crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8627, 862705 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

RSoft Design Group, Computer software BandSLOVE, http://www.rsoftdesign.com

E. J. Murphy, Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the direct femtosecond laser writing process. (b) Optical microscope images of the cross sections of multiscan waveguides No. 1 (top) and No. 2 (bottom), and measured near-field intensity distributions at 4 μm. (c) Optical microscope image of the splitting point of the 1 × 4 beam splitter No. 6.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical microscope images of the cross sections (left) and measured near-field intensity distributions at 4 μm of beam splitters Nos. 3-5 (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical microscope image of the cross section and measured near-field intensity distributions at 4 μm of the 1 × 4 beam splitter No. 6. (b) Simulated beam profile evolution for the 4 μm TE polarized light propagating along beam splitter No. 6.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polar images of the propagation losses of BGO waveguide No.2 (a) and beam splitter No.6 (b) measured at 4 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Propagation Losses α (dB/cm) of the BGO Waveguides and Beam Splitters

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