Abstract

Solution-derived YZO films were investigated as liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers modified by ion beam (IB) irradiation. Solution processing was adopted in place of the sputtering method for the deposition of YZO films as LC alignment layers. Uniform and homogeneous LC alignment was achieved to produce a high performance LC system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that surface reformation of YZO films by annealing and IB irradiation affects the uniformity of the LC alignment. Superior electro-optical characteristics of twisted nematic LC cells constructed from IB-irradiated YZO films were observed, which indicates that the proposed solution-derived YZO films have strong potential for use in the production of advanced LC displays.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment characteristics on solution-derived HfYGaO films treated with IB irradiation

Yun-Gun Lee, Hong-Gyu Park, Hae-Chang Jeong, Ju Hwan Lee, Gi-Seok Heo, and Dae-Shik Seo
Opt. Express 23(13) 17290-17300 (2015)

Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation

Young-Gu Kang, Hong-Gyu Park, Hyung-Jun Kim, Young-Hwan Kim, Byeong-Yun Oh, Byoung-Yong Kim, Dai-Hyun Kim, and Dae-Shik Seo
Opt. Express 18(21) 21594-21602 (2010)

Ion beam fabrication of aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer for high-performance liquid crystals alignment

Yang Liu, Ju Hwan Lee, and Dae-Shik Seo
Opt. Express 24(15) 17424-17432 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).
  11. S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. K. Son and S.-W. Choi, “Investigation of ion-beam-treated SiOx film surfaces for liquid crystal alignment,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 763–767 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).
  18. O. V. Yaroshchuk, A. D. Kiselev, and R. M. Kravchuk, “Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(3), 031706 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. V. Ordin and A. I. Shelykh, “Optical and dielectric characteristics of the rare-earth metal oxide Lu2O3,” Semiconductors 44(5), 558–563 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. T. Van and J. P. Chang, “Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011907 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, and L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal alignment on inorganic film by ion beam irradiation for flexible display applications,” Liq. Cryst. 38(7), 877–883 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. Han, K. Han, and M. Tao, “Low Resistivity Yttrium-Doped Zinc Oxide by Electrochemical Deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H593 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Kaur, A. Singh, and R. Mehra, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived yttrium doped ZnO films,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 1053–1059 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van Der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8156–8160 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  35. B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son and S.-W. Choi, “Investigation of ion-beam-treated SiOx film surfaces for liquid crystal alignment,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 763–767 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, and L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal alignment on inorganic film by ion beam irradiation for flexible display applications,” Liq. Cryst. 38(7), 877–883 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. V. Ordin and A. I. Shelykh, “Optical and dielectric characteristics of the rare-earth metal oxide Lu2O3,” Semiconductors 44(5), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Han, K. Han, and M. Tao, “Low Resistivity Yttrium-Doped Zinc Oxide by Electrochemical Deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

O. V. Yaroshchuk, A. D. Kiselev, and R. M. Kravchuk, “Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(3), 031706 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

T. T. Van and J. P. Chang, “Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011907 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

R. Kaur, A. Singh, and R. Mehra, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived yttrium doped ZnO films,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 1053–1059 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van Der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8156–8160 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[Crossref]

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baik, H. K.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callegari, A. C.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, J.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cha, S. S.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chae, S. S.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-Q.

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. P.

T. T. Van and J. P. Chang, “Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-J.

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. M. P.

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. C.

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chien, L.-C.

J. Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, and L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal alignment on inorganic film by ion beam irradiation for flexible display applications,” Liq. Cryst. 38(7), 877–883 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-H.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-W.

P. K. Son and S.-W. Choi, “Investigation of ion-beam-treated SiOx film surfaces for liquid crystal alignment,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 763–767 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chuang, R. W.-K.

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dobrovolskyy, A.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dobrovolskyy, A. M.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doyle, J. P.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, M.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gibbons, W. M.

P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
[Crossref]

Han, J. M.

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, J. W.

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-M.

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-W.

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

X. Han, K. Han, and M. Tao, “Low Resistivity Yttrium-Doped Zinc Oxide by Electrochemical Deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

X. Han, K. Han, and M. Tao, “Low Resistivity Yttrium-Doped Zinc Oxide by Electrochemical Deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heo, S.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, P.-T.

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hwang, B. H.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. Y.

J. Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, and L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal alignment on inorganic film by ion beam irradiation for flexible display applications,” Liq. Cryst. 38(7), 877–883 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.-Y.

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jang, W. S.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[Crossref]

Jeon, B. K.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.-C.

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiao, M.

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapoor, A.

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaur, R.

R. Kaur, A. Singh, and R. Mehra, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived yttrium doped ZnO films,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 1053–1059 (2005).
[Crossref]

Khakhlou, A.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

Kikuchi, H.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-Y.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, H.-J.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. C.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-H.

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kiselev, A. D.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, A. D. Kiselev, and R. M. Kravchuk, “Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(3), 031706 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kravchuk, R.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

Kravchuk, R. M.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, A. D. Kiselev, and R. M. Kravchuk, “Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(3), 031706 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

Kumar, S. K.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. L.

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lacey, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacey, J. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, W.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lang, J.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lang, N. D.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. D.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

Lee, H.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-W.

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-M.

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-K.

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lien, S. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lien, S. C. A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S. K.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, P. C.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

Liu, X.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. C.

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Logan, J. A.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van Der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8156–8160 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luning, J.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehra, R.

R. Kaur, A. Singh, and R. Mehra, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived yttrium doped ZnO films,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 1053–1059 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mehra, R. M.

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murauski, A.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

Myoung, J.-M.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakagaki, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odahara, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, B. Y.

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, B.-Y.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. Y.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ordin, S. V.

S. V. Ordin and A. I. Shelykh, “Optical and dielectric characteristics of the rare-earth metal oxide Lu2O3,” Semiconductors 44(5), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-G.

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, T.-K.

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, S.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.-C.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Purohit, L. P.

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Purushothaman, S.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, S. J.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ritsko, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, T. P.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samant, M.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samant, M. G.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sands, J. M.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Satoh, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Seo, D.-S.

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, and L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal alignment on inorganic film by ion beam irradiation for flexible display applications,” Liq. Cryst. 38(7), 877–883 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-G. Park, H.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, B.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Superior optical properties of homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on a tin (IV) oxide surface sequentially modulated via ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21594–21602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shannon, P. J.

P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shelykh, A. I.

S. V. Ordin and A. I. Shelykh, “Optical and dielectric characteristics of the rare-earth metal oxide Lu2O3,” Semiconductors 44(5), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shiota, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, A.

R. Kaur, A. Singh, and R. Mehra, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived yttrium doped ZnO films,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 1053–1059 (2005).
[Crossref]

Singh, N.

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Son, P. K.

P. K. Son and S.-W. Choi, “Investigation of ion-beam-treated SiOx film surfaces for liquid crystal alignment,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 763–767 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, K. M.

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Speidell, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speidell, J. L.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stohr, J.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stöhr, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S. T.

P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
[Crossref]

Swart, H. C.

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, M.

X. Han, K. Han, and M. Tao, “Low Resistivity Yttrium-Doped Zinc Oxide by Electrochemical Deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Telesh, E.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

Toney, M. F.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tun, C.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Van, T. T.

T. T. Van and J. P. Chang, “Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-M.

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wen, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, N.

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yaroshchuk, O.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

Yaroshchuk, O. V.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, A. D. Kiselev, and R. M. Kravchuk, “Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(3), 031706 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.-L.

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zakrevskyy, Y.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

M. Jiao, Z. Ge, Q. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “Alignment layer effects on thin liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061102 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, H. L. Kuo, P. C. Chen, C. H. Wen, Y. C. Liu, and H. M. P. Chen, “Alignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by anisotropic photo-oxidation of photosensitive polyimide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073509 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a - SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, B. Y. Oh, B. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. W. Han, J. M. Han, and D.-S. Seo, “Compositional investigation of liquid crystal alignment on tantalum oxide via ion beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043505 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. T. Van and J. P. Chang, “Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011907 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

ECS Solid State Letters. (1)

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of electrically controlled birefringence cells as an alignment layer on solution-derived lanthanum oxide films,” ECS Solid State Letters. 3(7), 77–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

P. Chen, W. Lai, L.-C. Peng, C. Kuo, C.-L. Yeh, J. Sheu, and C. Tun, “GaN-Based LEDs With AZO:Y Upper Contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

J. Yang, R. Wang, L. Yang, J. Lang, M. Wei, M. Gao, X. Liu, J. Cao, X. Li, and N. Yang, “Tunable deep-level emission in ZnO nanoparticles via yttrium doping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(8), 3606–3612 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064052 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

X. Han, K. Han, and M. Tao, “Low Resistivity Yttrium-Doped Zinc Oxide by Electrochemical Deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H593 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. SID (2)

O. V. Yaroshchuk, R. M. Kravchuk, A. M. Dobrovolskyy, P. C. Liu, and C. D. Lee, “Plasma beam alignment for the large-area substrates: Equipment and process,” J. SID 13, 289 (2005).

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. SID 14, 257 (2006).

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

P.-T. Hsieh, R. W.-K. Chuang, C.-Q. Chang, C.-M. Wang, and S.-J. Chang, “Optical and structural characteristics of yttrium doped ZnO films using sol–gel technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 58(1), 42–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van Der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8156–8160 (2004).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid Crystal Alignment and Electro-optical Characteristics of Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display on SiOx Thin Film Obliquely Deposited by Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-Induced Parallel Alignment of Liquid Crystals by Linearly Polymerized Photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (3)

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Kim, W.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “Ion bombardment-induced transformation process on SiNx surfaces to achieve vertical alignment of liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 38(3), 349–353 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Hwang, D.-S. Seo, and L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal alignment on inorganic film by ion beam irradiation for flexible display applications,” Liq. Cryst. 38(7), 877–883 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

O. V. Yaroshchuk, A. D. Kiselev, and R. M. Kravchuk, “Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(3), 031706 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

R. Kaur, A. Singh, and R. Mehra, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived yttrium doped ZnO films,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 1053–1059 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. V. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semiconductors (1)

S. V. Ordin and A. I. Shelykh, “Optical and dielectric characteristics of the rare-earth metal oxide Lu2O3,” Semiconductors 44(5), 558–563 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soft Matter (1)

S. S. Chae, B. H. Hwang, W. S. Jang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Park, S. J. Lee, K. M. Song, and H. K. Baik, “Homogeneous liquid crystal alignment on inorganic–organic hybrid silicathin films derived by the sol–gel method,” Soft Matter 8(5), 1437 (2012).
[Crossref]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

P. K. Son and S.-W. Choi, “Investigation of ion-beam-treated SiOx film surfaces for liquid crystal alignment,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 763–767 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

V. Kumar, N. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Kapoor, L. P. Purohit, and H. C. Swart, “Role of film thickness on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films 539, 161–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 558, 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Photomicroscopic images of LC cells with YZO films annealed at T = 500°C and treated with IB irradiation at 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kV. (b) Photomicroscopic images of LC cells with YZO films annealed at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500°C treated with IB irradiation at 1.8 kV. (c) The transmittance vs incident angle curves for YZO films annealed at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500°C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Y3d peaks of the XPS spectrum of solution-derived YZO films annealed at 200, 300, 400 and 500°C before and after irradiation. (b) Zn2p peaks of the XPS spectrum of films annealed at 200, 300, 400 and 500°C treated with IB irradiation. (c) O1s peak of the XPS spectrum of films annealed at 200, 300, 400 and 500°C treated with IB irradiation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The atomic area percentages of zinc, yttrium and oxygen from the XPS survey of the solution-derived YZO film as a function of the annealing temperature before and after IB irradiation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The surface morphology of as-coated and IB-irradiated YZO films annealed at T = 500°C. (b) UV-Vis transmittance spectra of solution-derived YZO films.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) V-T characteristics of TN cells with IB-irradiated solution-derived YZO films. (b) Response rise time curve of TN cells with IB-irradiated YZO films. (c) Response fall time curve of TN cells with IB-irradiated YZO films.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Tabel 1 Parameters for the EO properties of TN cells with IB-irradiated YZO films.

Metrics