Abstract

In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. D. Goodno and S. B. Weiss, “Automated co-alignment of coherent fiber laser arrays via active phase-locking,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14945–14953 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, M. Vorontsov, L. Liu, and G. Carhart, “Development of adaptive fiber collimators for conformal fiber-based beam projection systems,” Proc. SPIE 7090, 709008 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

L. A. Beresnev and M. A. Vorontsov, “Design of adaptive fiber optics collimator for free-space communication laser transceiver,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950R (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Aschenbach, K.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Augst, S. J.

Baker, J. T.

Bellanger, C.

Benham, V.

Bennaï, B.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beresnev, L.

L. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, M. Vorontsov, L. Liu, and G. Carhart, “Development of adaptive fiber collimators for conformal fiber-based beam projection systems,” Proc. SPIE 7090, 709008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beresnev, L. A.

T. Weyrauch, M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, L. A. Beresnev, A. P. Rostov, E. E. Polnau, and J. J. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4455–4457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. A. Beresnev and M. A. Vorontsov, “Design of adaptive fiber optics collimator for free-space communication laser transceiver,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950R (2005).
[Crossref]

Bourderionnet, J.

Bourdon, P.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brignon, A.

Canat, G.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carhart, G.

L. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, M. Vorontsov, L. Liu, and G. Carhart, “Development of adaptive fiber collimators for conformal fiber-based beam projection systems,” Proc. SPIE 7090, 709008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carhart, G. W.

T. Weyrauch, M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, L. A. Beresnev, A. P. Rostov, E. E. Polnau, and J. J. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4455–4457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

S. Wang, X. Yun, and J. Chen, “Design and analysis on micro displacement magnifying mechanism with flexible hinges,” Hydraulics Pneumatics Seals 1, 17–20 (2011).

Culpepper, M. A.

Dong, X.

Du, W.

Fan, T. Y.

Gaouën, Y.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geng, C.

C. Geng, W. Luo, Y. Tan, H. Liu, J. Mu, and X. Li, “Experimental demonstration of using divergence cost-function in SPGD algorithm for coherent beam combining with tip/tilt control,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25045–25055 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goldizen, K. C.

Goodno, G. D.

Goular, D.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, S.

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jolivet, V.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leng, J.

Li, X.

C. Geng, W. Luo, Y. Tan, H. Liu, J. Mu, and X. Li, “Experimental demonstration of using divergence cost-function in SPGD algorithm for coherent beam combining with tip/tilt control,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25045–25055 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, M. Vorontsov, L. Liu, and G. Carhart, “Development of adaptive fiber collimators for conformal fiber-based beam projection systems,” Proc. SPIE 7090, 709008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Y. Ma, X. Wang, J. Leng, H. Xiao, X. Dong, J. Zhu, W. Du, P. Zhou, X. Xu, L. Si, Z. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Coherent beam combination of 1.08 kW fiber amplifier array using single frequency dithering technique,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 951–953 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lombard, L.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. A.

Luo, W.

Ma, H.

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, P.

Ma, Y.

McComb, T. S.

McNaught, S. J.

Moreau, B.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mu, J.

Murphy, D. V.

Nelson, D. J.

Pilkington, D.

Polnau, E. E.

Pourtal, E.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Primot, J.

Redmond, S. M.

Rostov, A. P.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Sanchez, A.

Sanchez, A. D.

Shay, T. M.

Shu, B.

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Si, L.

Sivokon, V. P.

Spring, J.

Su, R.

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

Thielen, P. A.

Tünnermann, A.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vasseur, O.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vorontsov, M.

L. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, M. Vorontsov, L. Liu, and G. Carhart, “Development of adaptive fiber collimators for conformal fiber-based beam projection systems,” Proc. SPIE 7090, 709008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vorontsov, M. A.

T. Weyrauch, M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, L. A. Beresnev, A. P. Rostov, E. E. Polnau, and J. J. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4455–4457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. A. Beresnev and M. A. Vorontsov, “Design of adaptive fiber optics collimator for free-space communication laser transceiver,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950R (2005).
[Crossref]

M. A. Vorontsov and V. P. Sivokon, “Stochastic parallel-gradient-descent technique for high-resolution wave-front phase-distorsion correction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(10), 2745–2758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Yun, and J. Chen, “Design and analysis on micro displacement magnifying mechanism with flexible hinges,” Hydraulics Pneumatics Seals 1, 17–20 (2011).

Wang, X.

D. Zhi, Y. Ma, P. Ma, L. Si, X. Wang, and P. Zhou, “Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges,” Appl. Opt. 53(24), 5434–5438 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, X. Wang, J. Leng, H. Xiao, X. Dong, J. Zhu, W. Du, P. Zhou, X. Xu, L. Si, Z. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Coherent beam combination of 1.08 kW fiber amplifier array using single frequency dithering technique,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 951–953 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ward, B.

Weber, M. E.

Weiss, S. B.

Weyrauch, T.

T. Weyrauch, M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, L. A. Beresnev, A. P. Rostov, E. E. Polnau, and J. J. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4455–4457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, M. Vorontsov, L. Liu, and G. Carhart, “Development of adaptive fiber collimators for conformal fiber-based beam projection systems,” Proc. SPIE 7090, 709008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wickham, M. G.

Xiao, H.

Xu, X.

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, X. Wang, J. Leng, H. Xiao, X. Dong, J. Zhu, W. Du, P. Zhou, X. Xu, L. Si, Z. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Coherent beam combination of 1.08 kW fiber amplifier array using single frequency dithering technique,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 951–953 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. X.

Yun, X.

S. Wang, X. Yun, and J. Chen, “Design and analysis on micro displacement magnifying mechanism with flexible hinges,” Hydraulics Pneumatics Seals 1, 17–20 (2011).

Zhao, Y.

Zhi, D.

Zhou, P.

D. Zhi, Y. Ma, P. Ma, L. Si, X. Wang, and P. Zhou, “Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges,” Appl. Opt. 53(24), 5434–5438 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, R. Su, C. Geng, X. Li, X. Xu, and B. Shu, “350-W coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers with tilt-tip and phase locking control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1781–1784 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, X. Wang, J. Leng, H. Xiao, X. Dong, J. Zhu, W. Du, P. Zhou, X. Xu, L. Si, Z. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Coherent beam combination of 1.08 kW fiber amplifier array using single frequency dithering technique,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 951–953 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, X. Xu, and S. Guo, “Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and its application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 248–256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Hydraulics Pneumatics Seals (1)

S. Wang, X. Yun, and J. Chen, “Design and analysis on micro displacement magnifying mechanism with flexible hinges,” Hydraulics Pneumatics Seals 1, 17–20 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 269–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Gaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, “Beam shaping of single-mode and multimode fiber amplifier arrays for propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 257–268 (2009).
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Other (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The structure schematic diagram of the novel AFOC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The basement of AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental configuration of AFOC’s performances testing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The end cap deviation of AFOC as the function of applied driving voltage ((a) is X direction, and (b) is Y direction).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The frequency behavior of the AFOC as the function of driving frequency with (a) amplitude curve and (b) phase curve.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The experimental configuration of AFOC’s control accuracy testing (IPC: industrial personal computer).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The central position of the focused beam.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Tracking experiment of collimated beam following the sequences of letter “E”.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental setup (SL: seed laser, FS: fiber splitter, PM: phase modulator, AFOC: homemade adaptive fiber-optics collimator, BS1: 96:4 beam splitter, BS2: 50:50 beam splitter, PD: photonic detector, DSP: digital signal processing).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The normalized PIB values in different situations.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Long exposure patterns ((a) Open loop, (b) Only the phase-locking control is on, (c) Only the end-cap/tilt control is on, (d) both of the phase-locking control and the end-cap/tilt control are on).

Equations (1)

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U ( k+1 ) = U ( k ) +γ J + k J k 2 δ U ( k )

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