Abstract

Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) has been embedded onto indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance the light extraction from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The embedded AZO provides deflection and scattering interfaces on the newly generated AZO/organics and AZO/ITO interfaces rather than the conventional ITO/organic interface. The current efficiency of AZO embedded OLEDs was enhanced by up to 64%, attributed to the improved light extraction by additionally created reflection and scattering of emitted light on the AZO/ITO interfaces which was roughed in AZO embedding process. The current efficiency was found to increase with the increasing AZO embedded area ratio, but limited by the accompanying increases in haze and electrical resistance of the AZO embedded ITO film.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. N. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Zhang and H. Aziz, “Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013305 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Zhang and H. Aziz, “Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013305 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ai, N.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arunandan, K.

K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aziz, H.

Y. Zhang and H. Aziz, “Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boo, S. Y.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

N. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-O.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S.

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

N. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, E.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenham, N.

N. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. L.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huh, J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hyun Kim, Y.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.-H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. P.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. W.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. K.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Langer, N.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. S.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lennartz, C.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lussem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mladenovski, S.

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Molt, O.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motoyama, T.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Penninck, L.

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J. H.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. M.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takamatsu, J.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomschke, M.

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

Verschueren, T.

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wagenblast, G.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, D. H.

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang and H. Aziz, “Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J. H.

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. M. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang and H. Aziz, “Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013305 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Mladenovski, S. Hofmann, S. Reineke, L. Penninck, T. Verschueren, and K. Neyts, “Integrated optical model for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083114 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (3)

J. H. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Arunandan, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. P. Kim, K. S. Lee, T. W. Kim, D. H. Woo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. K. Kim, “Enhancement of the light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes utilizing a porous alumina film,” Thin Solid Films 516(11), 3633–3636 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of process flow for fabricating AZO embedded ITO film (a) recessed ITO processing, (b) AZO sputter deposition, and (c) CMP polishing of AZO/ITO stacked film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) recessed ITO, (b) AZO coated on recessed ITO, and (c) AZO embedded ITO after CMP polishing.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) I-V, (b) L-V, and (c) η–V characteristics of OLEDs with AZO embedded ITO anodes at various AZO coverage ratios.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematics of possible optical routes for OLED devices with an AZO embedded ITO anode. Solid line represents light escaped and the dotted line represents light trapped.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Total optical transmittance, haze ratio and sheet resistivity of AZO embedded ITO films at various AZO coverage ratios.

Metrics