Abstract

The growth and process of a regularly patterned nanorod (NR)- light-emitting diode (LED) array with its emission from sidewall non-polar quantum wells (QWs) are demonstrated. A pyramidal un-doped GaN structure is intentionally formed at the NR top for minimizing the current flow through this portion of the NR such that the injection current can be effectively guided to the sidewall m-plane InGaN/GaN QWs for emission excitation by a conformal transparent conductor (GaZnO). The injected current density at a given applied voltage of the NR LED device is similar to that of a planar c-plane or m-plane LED. The blue-shift trend of NR LED output spectrum with increasing injection current is caused by the non-uniform distributions of QW width and indium content along the height on a sidewall. The photoluminescence spectral shift under reversed bias confirms that the emission of the fabricated NR LED comes from non-polar QWs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Wang, Y. H. Lin, W. J. Yang, Z. L. Liu, S. Z. Zhiou, H. R. Qian, F. L. Gao, L. Wen, and G. Q. Li, “A new system for achieving high-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN-based light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(21), 4112–4116 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, C. Y. Yin, C. Y. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High performance of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers using MOCVD for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14452–14457 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-stable cyan and green light emitting diodes on nonpolar m-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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Amaike, H.

T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[Crossref]

Asamizu, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Babichev, A. V.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Banerjee, A.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, J. P.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergbauer, W.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bougerol, C.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bugallo, A.

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Butzen, E.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. W.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. M.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
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C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
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C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
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Chen, H. S.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
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C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
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C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, X.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. J.

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cherns, D.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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Chèze, C.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chou, W. H.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Chuo, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J. I.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ciechonski, R.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruz, S. C.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dang, D. S.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Luna Bugallo, A.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[Crossref]

Detchprohm, T.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-stable cyan and green light emitting diodes on nonpolar m-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010).
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Dieker, C.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durand, C.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Evans, K. R.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eymery, J.

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S. W.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fini, P. T.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujita, Y.

Y. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, I. Hiromitsu, Y. Fujita, and K. Yoshino, “Ga-doped ZnO film as a transparent electrode for phthalocyanine/perylene heterojunction solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 867–871 (2008).
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Funato, M.

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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Fundling, S.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fündling, S.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, F. L.

W. L. Wang, Y. H. Lin, W. J. Yang, Z. L. Liu, S. Z. Zhiou, H. R. Qian, F. L. Gao, L. Wen, and G. Q. Li, “A new system for achieving high-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN-based light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(21), 4112–4116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geelhaar, L.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goano, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
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A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
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Hsieh, C.

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T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
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H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
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M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
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X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
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M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
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Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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Keller, S.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
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C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
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H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
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C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
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Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Kishino, K.

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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Kolper, Ch.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koyama, T.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kryliouk, O.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Kubota, M.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
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T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
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Lahnemann, J.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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Lähnemann, J.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavenus, P.

M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Ledig, J.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Lee, C. M.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
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Lee, C. R.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
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Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
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X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
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W. L. Wang, Y. H. Lin, W. J. Yang, Z. L. Liu, S. Z. Zhiou, H. R. Qian, F. L. Gao, L. Wen, and G. Q. Li, “A new system for achieving high-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN-based light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(21), 4112–4116 (2014).
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X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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Li, S. F.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-stable cyan and green light emitting diodes on nonpolar m-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T. C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

W. L. Wang, Y. H. Lin, W. J. Yang, Z. L. Liu, S. Z. Zhiou, H. R. Qian, F. L. Gao, L. Wen, and G. Q. Li, “A new system for achieving high-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN-based light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(21), 4112–4116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. S.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Linder, N.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. H.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. L.

W. L. Wang, Y. H. Lin, W. J. Yang, Z. L. Liu, S. Z. Zhiou, H. R. Qian, F. L. Gao, L. Wen, and G. Q. Li, “A new system for achieving high-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN-based light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(21), 4112–4116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, K. J.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mandl, M.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

McLaurin, M.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Melo, T.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mishira, U. K.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mohajerani, M. S.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mulholland, G.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, H. Masui, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishira, “Nonpolar m-plane blue-light-emitting diode lamps with output power of 23.5 mW under pulsed operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 739–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[Crossref]

Navamathavan, R.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Onuma, T.

T. Onuma, H. Amaike, M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, J. Ichihara, H. Takasu, and S. F. Chichibu, “Quantum-confined Stark effects in the m-plane In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diode fabricated on low defect density freestanding GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181903 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma, T. Koyama, A. Chakraborty, M. McLaurin, B. A. Haskell, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes in nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(4), 1524–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paskova, T.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-stable cyan and green light emitting diodes on nonpolar m-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Preble, E. A.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-stable cyan and green light emitting diodes on nonpolar m-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qian, H. R.

W. L. Wang, Y. H. Lin, W. J. Yang, Z. L. Liu, S. Z. Zhiou, H. R. Qian, F. L. Gao, L. Wen, and G. Q. Li, “A new system for achieving high-quality nonpolar m-plane GaN-based light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(21), 4112–4116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ra, Y. H.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, H. I. Yoo, and C. R. Lee, “Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1537–1545 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Coaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire arrays on Si(111) substrate for high-performance light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3506–3516 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riechert, H.

X. Wang, S. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rigutti, L.

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roder, C.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salomon, D.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sekiguchi, H.

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
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Seong, H. K.

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Yi, G. C.

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Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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M. Tchernycheva, P. Lavenus, H. Zhang, A. V. Babichev, G. Jacopin, M. Shahmohammadi, F. H. Julien, R. Ciechonski, G. Vescovi, and O. Kryliouk, “InGaN/GaN core-shell single nanowire light emitting diodes with graphene-based p-contact,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2456–2465 (2014).
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Nanotechnology (1)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a): Structure of the fabricated NR LED array. The (pink) arrows indicate the expected current flow routes. (b): Structure of the sidewall QWs, which magnifies the portion circled by red dashed line in part (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a): Tilted SEM image of the NR LED array before GaZnO deposition. (b): Tilted SEM image of the NR LED array after the deposition of the GaZnO layer. (c) and (d): Cross-sectional SEM image and the corresponding electron backscattering image, respectively, of the NR LED array after the deposition of the p-contact.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a): TEM image of an NR after the depositions of the GaZnO, Ni, and Au layers. The dashed lines are drawn to roughly indicate the material boundaries. (b)-(d): Three magnified TEM images for the three portions of the sidewall QWs. The locations of QWs are indicated by the (pink) arrows.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variations of the normalized integrated PL intensity (the left ordinate) and PL spectral peak energy (the right ordinate) with temperature of the NR LED array.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variations of normalized LED output power per unit emission area (the right ordinate) with injection current density (L-J curve) and the relations between injection current density and applied voltage (J-V curve) of the NR LED and the planar LED. The insert shows the photograph of a lit NR LED array at 150 A/cm2 in injection current density.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Relative EQEs as functions of injection current density of the NR LED and planar LED.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variations of the spectral peak wavelength of LED output (the left ordinate) and spectral FWHM of the NR LED array with injection current (density).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a): Cross-sectional SEM image of a test NR array sample before p-GaN deposition under the same growth condition as that used for processing the LED device. Local CL spectra at a {1-101}-plane location (labeled by 1) and three m-plane locations (labeled by 2-4) are measured. (b): Local CL spectra at the four positions shown in part (a). The top CL spectrum, labeled by “Cross-section”, is obtained from the overall cross-sectional CL measurement.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variations of the PL peak wavelength (the left ordinate) and integrated PL intensity (the right ordinate) with reverse-biased voltage of the NR LED array.

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