Abstract

We demonstrated a compact and highly-sensitive curvature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer created in a photonic crystal fiber. Such a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisted of a peanut-like section and an abrupt taper achieved by use of an optimized electrical arc discharge technique, where only one dominating cladding mode was excited and interfered with the fundamental mode. The unique structure exhibited a high curvature sensitivity of 50.5 nm/m−1 within a range from 0 to 2.8 m−1, which made it suitable for high-sensitivity curvature sensing in harsh environments. Moreover, it also exhibited a temperature sensitivity of 11.7 pm/°C.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (8)

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Saffari, T. Allsop, A. Adebayo, D. Webb, R. Haynes, and M. M. Roth, “Long period grating in multicore optical fiber: an ultra-sensitive vector bending sensor for low curvatures,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3508–3511 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Qi, L. Ma, Z. Kang, Y. Bai, B. Yin, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive curvature sensor based on a multicladding fiber sandwiched dual no-core fibers structure,” Appl. Opt. 53(28), 6382–6388 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, H. Song, S. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. Dong, “Curvature Sensor Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 777–780 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Guan and Q. Yu, “Index-insensitive curvature sensor based on holey fiber modal interferometer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(7), 1709–1711 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer using photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2849–2853 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazao, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor using FBG cladding modes based on a core misaligned splice,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 804–806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y.-J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

Adebayo, A.

Allsop, T.

Araújo, F. M.

Bai, Y.

Bai, Z.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baptista, J. M.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazao, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor using FBG cladding modes based on a core misaligned splice,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 804–806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

Caldas, P.

Chen, D.

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chiang, K. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Chu, J.

Deng, M.

D. Wu, T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, and M. Deng, “All Single-Mode Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(5), 805–810 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer using photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2849–2853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dinh, X. Q.

Dong, X.

H. Gong, H. Song, S. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. Dong, “Curvature Sensor Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 777–780 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, H. Song, X. Li, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer,” Sens. Actuat, A-Phys. 195, 139–141 (2013).

C. Shen, C. Zhong, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and H. Gong, “Polarization-dependent curvature sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a difference arithmetic demodulation method,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15406–15417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Han, X. Dong, J. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of bending and temperature based on a single sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating embedded on a flexible cantilever beam,” Opt. Lett. 31(19), 2839–2841 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, C.

Farahi, F.

Feng, Z.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, L. A.

Frazao, O.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazao, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor using FBG cladding modes based on a core misaligned splice,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 804–806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

Gao, S.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, P.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

H. Gong, H. Song, S. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. Dong, “Curvature Sensor Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 777–780 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, H. Song, X. Li, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer,” Sens. Actuat, A-Phys. 195, 139–141 (2013).

C. Shen, C. Zhong, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and H. Gong, “Polarization-dependent curvature sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a difference arithmetic demodulation method,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15406–15417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y.-J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gouveia, C.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazao, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor using FBG cladding modes based on a core misaligned splice,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 804–806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guan, S.

S. Guan and Q. Yu, “Index-insensitive curvature sensor based on holey fiber modal interferometer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(7), 1709–1711 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guzman-Sepulveda, J. R.

Han, T.

Han, Y.-G.

Haynes, R.

Hu, L.

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

James, S. W.

Jang, H. S.

Jeong, C. H.

Ji, W.

Jian, S.

Jiang, M.

Jin, S.

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Jorge, P. A. S.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazao, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor using FBG cladding modes based on a core misaligned splice,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 804–806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. J.

Kang, Z.

Kim, G.

Kim, J. C.

Kim, M. J.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. B.

Li, J.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Li, T.

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Gong, H. Song, X. Li, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer,” Sens. Actuat, A-Phys. 195, 139–141 (2013).

Lim, J. H.

Liu, Y.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-G.

Liu, Z.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

Ma, Y.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

May-Arrioja, D. A.

Ni, K.

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oh, C. H.

Ou, Z.

Qi, Y.

Qian, W.

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qin, B.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y.-J.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y.-J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer using photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2849–2853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rong, Q.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roth, M. M.

Saffari, P.

Santos, J. L.

Shao, X.

Shen, C.

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Zhong, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and H. Gong, “Polarization-dependent curvature sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a difference arithmetic demodulation method,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15406–15417 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shum, P. P.

Song, H.

H. Gong, H. Song, S. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. Dong, “Curvature Sensor Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 777–780 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, H. Song, X. Li, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer,” Sens. Actuat, A-Phys. 195, 139–141 (2013).

Tang, C.-P.

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer using photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2849–2853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

Tjin, S. C.

Viegas, J.

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Webb, D.

Wei, H.

Weng, Y.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

Wu, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y.-J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Xu, Q.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
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Xue, X.

Yan, P.

Yan, T.

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. C.

Yin, B.

You, Y.

Yu, Q.

S. Guan and Q. Yu, “Index-insensitive curvature sensor based on holey fiber modal interferometer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(7), 1709–1711 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Yuan, L.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H. Gong, H. Song, S. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. Dong, “Curvature Sensor Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 777–780 (2014).
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L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
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S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
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L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.-L.

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, T.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y.-J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, C.

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
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C. Shen, C. Zhong, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and H. Gong, “Polarization-dependent curvature sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a difference arithmetic demodulation method,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15406–15417 (2012).
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Zhou, A.

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

D. Wu, T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, and M. Deng, “All Single-Mode Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(5), 805–810 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer using photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2849–2853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Y. Zhang, A. Zhou, B. Qin, Q. Xu, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Curvature Based on Hollow Annular Core Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1128–1131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, C. Shen, C. Zhong, D. Chen, X. Dong, and J. Cai, “Refractive index and temperature sensor based on double-pass M-Z interferometer with an FBG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1124–1127 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C.-L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Two Peanut-Shape Structures Modal Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazao, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor using FBG cladding modes based on a core misaligned splice,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 804–806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y.-J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (3)

R. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, M. Hu, and X. Qiao, “Highly Sensitive Curvature Sensor Using an In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 1766–1770 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, H. Song, S. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. Dong, “Curvature Sensor Based on Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(3), 777–780 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

L. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, S. Gao, J. Li, Z. Bai, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, and T. Yan, “Simultaneous directional bending and temperature measurement with overlapping long period grating and fiber Bragg grating structure,” J. Opt. 16(5), 055401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Guan and Q. Yu, “Index-insensitive curvature sensor based on holey fiber modal interferometer,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(7), 1709–1711 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer using photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2849–2853 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ni, T. Li, L. Hu, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Temperature-independent curvature sensor based on tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5148–5150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

P. Saffari, T. Allsop, A. Adebayo, D. Webb, R. Haynes, and M. M. Roth, “Long period grating in multicore optical fiber: an ultra-sensitive vector bending sensor for low curvatures,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3508–3511 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing with long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25(14), 1007–1009 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Han, X. Dong, J. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of bending and temperature based on a single sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating embedded on a flexible cantilever beam,” Opt. Lett. 31(19), 2839–2841 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. Viegas, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and F. Farahi, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder curvature sensor based on multimode interference combined with a long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3074–3076 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, Y.-G. Liu, Z. Wang, M. Jiang, W. Ji, T. Han, S. Li, X. Shao, X. Q. Dinh, S. C. Tjin, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of curvature and strain based on fiber Bragg grating in two-dimensional waveguide array fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4070–4073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 346–348 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuat, A-Phys. (1)

H. Gong, H. Song, X. Li, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer,” Sens. Actuat, A-Phys. 195, 139–141 (2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of the empoyed PCF. (b) Transmission spectrum of the fabricated MZI-1 (Sample 3). (c) Schematic diagram of the MZI-1 and microscopic images of the peanut-like section and abrupt taper shown in the left and right insets. (d) Beam propagation simulation in the MZI-1 at the wavelength of 1430 nm and 1520 nm, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Spatial frequency spectra of the three samples. (b) The mode fields and refractive indices of the fundamental modes and cladding modes existed in sample 3 at the wavelength of 1513 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Spectra responces of the MZI-1 (sample 3) for different curvature. (b) The wavelength shift and dip intensity of the MZI-1 at dip A.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The wavelength shift and dip intensity of the MZI-1 versus temperature at dip A.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Spectrum of the MZI-2 with two collapsed regions. (b) The wavelength shift of dip 1 with curvature.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Numerical simulation of (a) the MZI-1 structure with a peanut-like section and an abrupt taper; (b) the MZI-2 structure with two collapsed regions rather than a peanut-like section and an abrupt taper.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optimized splicing parameters for a commercial fusion splicer (Fujikura-80s)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ= 2π( n core,eff n clad,eff )L λ
I= I core + I clad +2 I core I clad cosΦ
Φ= 2π( n core,eff - n clad,eff )L λ
FSR= λ 2 Δ n eff L
C=1/R=2d/( d 2 + L 2 )

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