Abstract

We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  18. M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011).
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  19. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
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  20. D. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24838–24848 (2011).
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  21. D. Marpaung, “On-chip photonic-assisted instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 837–840 (2013).
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  22. C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K. J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22937–22961 (2013).
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  23. J. Mitola, “The software radio architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(5), 26–38 (1995).
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  24. P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Capmany, J. Mora, P. Muñoz, and S. Sales, “A microwave photonics transistor,” in Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Topical meeting on MWP (Alexandria, USA, 2013).
  26. R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19758–19774 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable photonic microwave filters monolithically integrated in InP–InGaAsP,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1611–1619 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  31. China Mobile Research Institute, C-RAN: The road towards green ran. (2011, Oct.), [Online] Available: http://labs.chinamobile.com/cran/wpcontent/uploads/CRAN_white_paper_v2_5_EN.pdf .
  32. Joint European Platform for photonic Integration of components and circuits (JEPPIX), The roadmap to a multibillion Euro market in integrated photonics, available at www.jeppix.eu .

2014 (1)

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2011 (9)

R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Integrated InP-InGaAsP tunable coupled ring optical bandpass filters with zero insertion loss,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7816–7826 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable photonic microwave filters monolithically integrated in InP–InGaAsP,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1611–1619 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable photonic microwave filters monolithically integrated in InP–InGaAsP,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1611–1619 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19758–19774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24838–24848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Mitola, “The software radio architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(5), 26–38 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abolhasan, M.

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Azaña, J.

M. Burla, L. R. Cortes, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “On-chip ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay line based on a single phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.2013, pp. 92–95.
[Crossref]

Barton, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Beheshti, N.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Bénazet, B.

M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave photonic technologies for flexible satellite telecom payloads,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, (Vienna, Austria, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Boller, K. J.

Bowers, J. E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Bucholtz, F.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burla, M.

Burmeister, E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Capmany, J.

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19758–19774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, J. Mora, P. Muñoz, and S. Sales, “A microwave photonics transistor,” in Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Topical meeting on MWP (Alexandria, USA, 2013).

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chevalier, L.

Chrostowski, L.

M. Burla, L. R. Cortes, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “On-chip ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay line based on a single phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.2013, pp. 92–95.
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

Cortes, L. R.

M. Burla, L. R. Cortes, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “On-chip ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay line based on a single phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.2013, pp. 92–95.
[Crossref]

den Besten, J. H.

P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
[Crossref]

Devgan, P. S.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

Domenech, J.

P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
[Crossref]

Doménech, J. D.

Dummer, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Epps, G.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Fandiño, J. S.

Fang, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ganjali, Y.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Garcia, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Gasulla, I.

Guzzon, R. S.

Heideman, R.

Heideman, R. G.

Hoekman, M.

Jamalipour, A.

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L. A.

Khan, M. R.

Koch, B.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Lal, V.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Le Kernec, A.

M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave photonic technologies for flexible satellite telecom payloads,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, (Vienna, Austria, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leinse, A.

Li, M.

M. Burla, L. R. Cortes, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “On-chip ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay line based on a single phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.2013, pp. 92–95.
[Crossref]

Lipman, J.

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lively, E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Mack, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Maignan, M.

M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave photonic technologies for flexible satellite telecom payloads,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, (Vienna, Austria, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Marpaung, D.

Marpaung, D. A. I.

Mašanovic, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

McKeown, N.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Mckinney, J. D.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mitola, J.

J. Mitola, “The software radio architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(5), 26–38 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mora, J.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, P. Muñoz, and S. Sales, “A microwave photonics transistor,” in Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Topical meeting on MWP (Alexandria, USA, 2013).

Movassaghi, S.

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, P.

J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Capmany, J. Mora, P. Muñoz, and S. Sales, “A microwave photonics transistor,” in Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Topical meeting on MWP (Alexandria, USA, 2013).

P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, K.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Nicholes, S. C.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Norberg, E. J.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oldenbeuving, R. M.

Ortega, B.

Park, H.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Parker, J. S.

Pastor, D.

Perez, D.

P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, H.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Roeloffzen, C.

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

Sales, S.

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, J. Mora, P. Muñoz, and S. Sales, “A microwave photonics transistor,” in Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Topical meeting on MWP (Alexandria, USA, 2013).

Smith, D.

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sotom, M.

M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave photonic technologies for flexible satellite telecom payloads,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, (Vienna, Austria, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Srinivasan, K.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stamenic, B.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Sysak, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Taddei, C.

Tauke-Pedretti, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

Urick, V. J.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Dijk, P. W. L.

Varghese, L. T.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

M. Burla, L. R. Cortes, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “On-chip ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay line based on a single phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.2013, pp. 92–95.
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Zhuang, L.

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (1)

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 16(3), 1658–1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Mitola, “The software radio architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(5), 26–38 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 458–471 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Marpaung, “On-chip photonic-assisted instantaneous microwave frequency measurement system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 837–840 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. Mckinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19758–19774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, C. Taddei, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, P. W. L. van Dijk, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, and K. J. Boller, “Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22937–22961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24838–24848 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Integrated InP-InGaAsP tunable coupled ring optical bandpass filters with zero insertion loss,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7816–7826 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Fandiño, J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3726–3736 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (11)

M. Burla, L. R. Cortes, M. Li, X. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “On-chip ultra-wideband microwave photonic phase shifter and true time delay line based on a single phase-shifted waveguide Bragg grating,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.2013, pp. 92–95.
[Crossref]

See “Technology focus on Microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 723–736 (2011).

H. Al-Raweshidi and S. Komaki, eds., Radio over fiber technologies for mobile communications networks (Artech House, 2002).

M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave photonic technologies for flexible satellite telecom payloads,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, (Vienna, Austria, 2009), pp. 1–4.

M. Popov, “The convergence of wired and wireless services delivery in access and home networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication conference (2010), paper OWQ6.

A. M. Koonen, M. G. Larrodé, A. Ng'oma, K. Wang, H. Yang, Y. Zheng, and E. Tangdiongga, “Perspectives of radio-over-fiber technologies,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2008), paper OThP3.

See for example: http://www.pharad.com/s-q-band-rf-photonic-link .

P. Muñoz, J. Capmany, D. Perez, J. H. den Besten, J. S. Fandiño, and J. Domenech, “Integrated microwave photonics: state of the art and future trends,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Networks (ICTON), (Graz, Austria, 2014).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, J. Mora, P. Muñoz, and S. Sales, “A microwave photonics transistor,” in Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Topical meeting on MWP (Alexandria, USA, 2013).

China Mobile Research Institute, C-RAN: The road towards green ran. (2011, Oct.), [Online] Available: http://labs.chinamobile.com/cran/wpcontent/uploads/CRAN_white_paper_v2_5_EN.pdf .

Joint European Platform for photonic Integration of components and circuits (JEPPIX), The roadmap to a multibillion Euro market in integrated photonics, available at www.jeppix.eu .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Generic concept of a software-defined reconfigurable MWP signal processor and some possible material integration platforms.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Layout of (Left) a MWP transistor, from [25]; (Right) Reconfigurable MWP signal processor.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diagram of the MWP signal processor for the development of the end-to-end design model.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic top view of the three optical filtering subsystems considered: a) FM-DD, b) BPF and c) MZI.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transfer function of the three optical filtering subsystems considered in function of the microwave frequency f: a) FM-DD (up), b) BPF (bottom left) and c) MZI (bottom right)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SFDR variation as a function of NFRF (left) and as a function of |HeN (ηΩ1- Ω2)|, η = {1,2}, (right), for all the optical filtering subsystems considered: FM-DD, BPF and MZI
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Second- (up) and third-order (down) SFDR variation as a function of b/a for the FM-DD.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Impact of the three terms in Eq. (17) on the overall third-order SFDR of the processor.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overall FOM computed values for the three optical filtering subsystems considered

Equations (18)

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x(t)= i 1 sin( Ω 1 t+ θ 1 )+ i 2 sin( Ω 2 t+ θ 2 )+ i 11 sin( 2 Ω 1 t+ θ 11 )+ i 22 sin( 2 Ω 2 t+ θ 22 )+ i 12 sin[ ( Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 12 ]+ i 21 sin[ ( Ω 2 Ω 1 )t+ θ 21 ]+ i xx sin[ ( Ω 1 + Ω 2 )t+ θ xx ]+ i 112 sin[ ( 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 112 ]+ i 221 sin[ ( 2 Ω 2 Ω 1 )t+ θ 221 ],
i 1,2 Z = I dc ϕ rf 2 sin( ϕ dc )| A Ω 1,2 Z | and i 1,2 Y =2 I dc ϕ rf | A Ω 1,2 Y |.
i 112 Z = I dc ϕ rf 2 8 | A 2 Ω 1,2 Z | , i 12,21 Z = I dc ϕ rf 2 8 | A Ω 1,2 Ω 2,1 Z | and i xx Z = I dc ϕ rf 2 8 | A Ω 1 + Ω 2 Z |; i 112 Y = I dc ϕ rf 2 | A 2 Ω 1,2 Y | , i 12,21 Y = I dc ϕ rf 2 | A Ω 1,2 Ω 2,1 Y | and i xx Y = I dc ϕ rf 2 | A Ω 1 + Ω 2 Y |.
i 112,221 Z = I dc ϕ rf 3 32 sin( ϕ dc )| A 2 Ω 1,2 Ω 2,1 Z | and i 112,221 Y = I dc ϕ rf 3 2 | A 2 Ω 1,2 Ω 2,1 Y |.
A Ω 1,2 X = n = { 0,1 } ε 1 [ H 11 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1,2 ) H 11 * ( ω 0 +(n1) Ω 1,2 ) H 21 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1,2 ) H 21 * ( ω 0 +(n1) Ω 1,2 ) ] for { ε 1 =1 if (X=Z); ( 1 ) n if (X=Y) };
A 2 Ω 1,2 X = n={ 0,1,2 } ε 2 [ H 11 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1,2 ) H 11 * ( ω 0 +(n2) Ω 1,2 ) H 21 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1,2 ) H 21 * ( ω 0 +(n2) Ω 1,2 ) ] for { ε 2 =[ (1) n cos ϕ dc ] ( 1 2 ) | n1 | if (X=Z); ( 1 ) n ( 1 2 ) | n1 | if (X=Y) };
A Ω 1,2 ± Ω 2,1 X =± n={ 0,1 } m={ 1,0 } ε 3 [ H 11 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1,2 m Ω 2,1 ) H 11 * ( ω 0 +(n1) Ω 1,2 (m+1) Ω 2,1 ) H 21 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1,2 m Ω 2,1 ) H 21 * ( ω 0 +(n1) Ω 1,2 (m+1) Ω 2,1 ) ] for { ε 3 =[ (1) n+m cos( ϕ dc ) ] if (X=Z); ( 1 ) n+m if (X=Y) };
A 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 X = n = { 0,1,2 } m = { -1,0 } ε 4 [ H 11 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1 +m Ω 2 ) H 11 * ( ω 0 +(n2) Ω 1 +(m+1) Ω 2 ) H 21 ( ω 0 +n Ω 1 +m Ω 2 ) H 21 * ( ω 0 +(n2) Ω 1 +(m+1) Ω 2 ] for { ε 4 = ( 1 2 ) | n1 | if (X=Z); (1) m+n ( 1 2 ) | n1 | if (X=Y) }.
y Ω 1,2 (t)=a i 1 sin( Ω 1 t+ θ 1 )+b{ i 1 i 11 cos( Ω 1 t+ θ 11 θ 1 ) i 2 i 12 cos( Ω 1 t+ θ 2 + θ 12 )+ i 2 i 21 cos( Ω 1 t+ θ 2 θ 21 )+ i 2 i xx cos( Ω 1 t+ θ xx θ 2 ) };
y Ω 1 Ω 2 (t)=a i 12 sin[ ( Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 12 ]+b{ i 1 i 2 cos[ ( Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 1 θ 2 ]+ i 11 i xx cos[ ( Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 11 θ xx ] };
y Ω 2 Ω 1 (t)=a i 21 sin[ ( Ω 2 Ω 1 )t+ θ 21 ]+b i 22 i xx cos[ ( Ω 2 Ω 1 )t+ θ 22 θ xx ];
y 2 Ω 1 (t)=a i 11 sin(2 Ω 1 t+ θ 11 )+b{ i 1 2 2 cos(2 Ω 1 t+2 θ 1 ) i 12 i xx cos(2 Ω 1 t+ θ 12 + θ xx )+ i 21 i xx cos(2 Ω 1 t+ θ xx θ 21 ) };
y 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 (t)=a i 112 sin[ ( 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 112 ]+b{ i 1 i 12 cos[ ( 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 1 + θ 12 ] + i 1 i 21 cos[ ( 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 1 θ 21 ]+ i 2 i 11 cos[ ( 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 )t+ θ 11 θ 2 ) ] }.
G X (dB)= G RF (dB)+ G MWP X (dB),
N F X (dB)=N F RF (dB)+N F MWP X (dB),
SFD R 2 X ( dB·H z 1/2 )=SFD R 2,MWP X (dB·H z 1/2 )[ | H eN ( Ω 1 Ω 2 ) |(dB)+ 1 2 N F RF (dB) ]5log( 1+ T 2X ) for T 2 X =k ( b a ) 2 | A Ω 1 X | 2 | A Ω 2 X | 2 | A Ω 1 Ω 2 X | 2 = P IM D 2 ,RF P IM D 2 ,MWP and k={ 4 I dc 2 sin 4 ( ϕ dc ) if X=I,IBD 16 I dc 2 if X=Φ,ΦBD ;
SFD R 3 X ( dB·H z 2/3 )=SFD R 3,MWP X ( dB·H z 2/3 ) 2 3 [ | H eN ( 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 ) |(dB)+N F RF (dB) ] 10 3 log( 1+ T 3X ) for T 3 X =k ( b a ) 2 [ | A Ω 1 X | 2 | A Ω 1 Ω 2 X | 2 + | A Ω 1 X | 2 | A Ω 2 Ω 1 X | 2 + | A 2 Ω 1 X | 2 | A Ω 2 X | 2 ] | A 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 X | 2 = P IM D 3 ,RF P IM D 3 ,MWP and k={ 4 I dc 2 if X=I,IBD 16 I dc 2 if X=Φ,ΦBD ,
H 11 (ω)=j α MZI e jωτ/2 sin(ωτ/2) and H 21 (ω)=j α MZI e jωτ/2 cos(ωτ/2)

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