Abstract

We present a new technical implementation of a high-speed broadband frequency sweep of continuous-wave terahertz (THz) radiation. THz frequency sweeping with a kHz sweep rate and a THz sweep range is implemented using THz photomixing in which an optical beat source consists of a wavelength-swept laser and a distributed feedback laser diode. During the frequency sweep, frequency-domain THz interferograms are measured using the coherent homodyne detection employing signal averaging for noise reduction, which can give time-of-flight information via fast Fourier transform. Multiple reflections in a Si wafer and the thickness of the wafer are measured to demonstrate the potential of this method for fast THz tomography and thickness measurement.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

2014 (4)

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Moon, N. Kim, J.-H. Shin, Y.-J. Yoon, S.-P. Han, and K. H. Park, “Continuous-wave terahertz system based on a dual-mode laser for real-time non-contact measurement of thickness and conductivity,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2259–2266 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, H.-C. Ryu, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “Rapidly frequency-swept optical beat source for continuous wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18364–18371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, and M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1613–1617 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim and D.-S. Yee, “High-speed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy based on electronically controlled optical sampling,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3715–3717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1998 (2)

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Abe, H.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baaske, K.

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, and M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bigourd, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blary, K.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bocquet, R.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonesi, M.

Boschert, P.

Breitfeld, F.

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cámara Mayorga, I.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cerna, R.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cho, S. H.

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M.

Cristofani, E.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cuisset, A.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Dekorsy, T.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deninger, A.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dennis, C. L.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dietz, R. J. B.

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

Döhler, G. H.

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ensher, J.

Exter, M.

Fattinger, C.

Flueraru, C.

Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Friederich, F.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Globisch, B.

Göbel, T.

Gossard, A. C.

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

Grüninger, M.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Güsten, R.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-P.

Hanson, M.

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hemberger, J.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Henneberger, R.

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Hindle, F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hochrein, T.

Holzwarth, R.

Hoover, E.

Huber, R.

Hudert, F.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, M. Y.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, K. H.

Jonuscheit, J.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, E. J.

Jung, W.

Keiding, S.

Kim, C. S.

Kim, C. Y.

Kim, M. K.

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-G.

Kistner, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, H.

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, and M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1613–1617 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krumbholz, N.

Lampin, J. F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Langenbach, M.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, E. S.

Lee, I.-M.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loeffler, T.

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Malzer, S.

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mao, Y.

Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matheis, C.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, S.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matton, S.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mayorga, I. C.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mei, M.

Mikulics, M.

Minneman, M. P.

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moon, K.

Mouret, G.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nichols, K. B.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ozeki, H.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-W.

Park, K. H.

Preu, S.

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roehle, H.

Roggenbuck, A.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Ryu, H.-C.

Saito, S.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sattmann, H.

Schell, M.

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, and M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmitz, H.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sherif, S.

Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-H.

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stanze, D.

Tani, M.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thirunavukkuarasu, K.

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thoma, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vandewal, M.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

Von Spiegel, W.

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Wang, L. J.

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weg, C. A.

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Wilk, R.

Wohnsiedler, S.

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yahng, J. S.

Yang, H.-S.

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ye, J. C.

Yee, D.-S.

Yoon, Y.-J.

Zabihian, B.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

Zhao, Q. Z.

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zimmerman, J. D.

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, R.

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, and D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061101 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, and M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, Q. Z. Zhao, M. Hanson, J. D. Zimmerman, A. C. Gossard, and L. J. Wang, “Interference between two coherently driven monochromatic terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221107 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, “THz imaging radar for standoff personnel screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves (2)

C. A. Weg, W. Von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with ranging capabilities,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1281–1296 (2009).

M. Langenbach, A. Roggenbuck, I. Cámara Mayorga, A. Deninger, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, “Group delay in THz spectroscopy with ultra-wideband log-spiral antennae,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(11), 918–931 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy by a compact radiation source based on photomixing with diode lasers in a photoconductive antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Cristofani, F. Friederich, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, M. Vandewal, and R. Beigang, “Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): a new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Moon, N. Kim, J.-H. Shin, Y.-J. Yoon, S.-P. Han, and K. H. Park, “Continuous-wave terahertz system based on a dual-mode laser for real-time non-contact measurement of thickness and conductivity,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2259–2266 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, M. P. Minneman, J. Ensher, B. Zabihian, H. Sattmann, P. Boschert, E. Hoover, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Crawford, and W. Drexler, “Akinetic all-semiconductor programmable swept-source at 1550 nm and 1310 nm with centimeters coherence length,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2632–2655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-M. Lee, N. Kim, E. S. Lee, S.-P. Han, K. Moon, and K. H. Park, “Frequency modulation based continuous-wave terahertz homodyne system,” Opt. Express 23(2), 846–858 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-S. Yee, K. H. Jin, J. S. Yahng, H.-S. Yang, C. Y. Kim, and J. C. Ye, “High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging using beam steering,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5027–5034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Jung, C. S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, M. K. Kim, M. Y. Jeon, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16552–16560 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1613–1617 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, H.-C. Ryu, D.-S. Yee, and K. H. Park, “Rapidly frequency-swept optical beat source for continuous wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18364–18371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Jin, Y.-G. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. C. Ye, and D.-S. Yee, “High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging for nondestructive evaluation,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25432–25440 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, and K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

I. N. Duling, J. White, and S. Williamson, “High speed imaging with time domain terahertz,” in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Schulkin, D. Brigada, J. St. James, T. Tongue, and X.-C. Zhang, “Progress toward handheld THz sensing,” in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2011).

M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, and D.-S. Yee, “Terahertz wave apparatus,” United States Patent, US 8,476,592 (2013)Japanese Patent, 5096543 (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of our experimental setup for the high-speed broadband frequency sweep of CW THz radiation. WSL: wavelength-swept laser, OFA: polarization-maintaining optical fiber amplifier, DFB-LD: distributed feedback laser diode, PM fiber: polarization-maintaining fiber, THz-Tx: THz CW transmitter, WG: waveform generator, VODL: variable optical delay line, THz-Rx: THz CW receiver, DPG: digital delay/pulse generator, Amp: current preamplifier. (b) Output power spectra of the DFB-LD (blue line) and the WSL (black line).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Normalized frequency-domain THz interferograms measured at different time delays with a sweep rate of 1 kHz. They are vertically shifted for clarity. (b) Normalized FFT amplitudes of THz interferograms measured at various time delays. (c) τe and τe - τs are plotted versus τs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SNR of a THz interferogram versus the number of averaged traces, i.e. the measurement time at a sweep rate of 1 kHz. The red line indicates the fit of the result to Y=α X β . (b) The absolute values of extrema in the THz interferogram and the absolute values of noise data obtained by averaging 5 (red line), 500 (green line), and 50,000 (blue line) noise data traces acquired in 0.01, 1, and 100 s, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Maximum FFT amplitudes of THz (blue dots) and WSL (black dots) interferograms measured at different time delays with a sweep rate of 1 kHz. WSL interferograms were measured using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer illustrated in the inset. PD: photodetector. (b) Maximum FFT amplitudes of THz interferograms measured at different time delays with various sweep rates.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized FFT amplitudes of THz interferograms measured with (blue line) and without (red line) a Si wafer in the THz path with the time delay set to 14 ps. (b) Result of deconvolution of the sample data with the reference data in (a).

Equations (3)

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Δ τ 1 = ( n g 1 )d c
Δ τ 2 = 2 n g d c .
d= c 2 ( Δ τ 2 2Δ τ 1 ) and n g = Δ τ 2 Δ τ 2 2Δ τ 1 ,

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