Abstract

InGaN light-emitting diodes of stripe geometries have been demonstrated. The elongated geometry facilitates light spreading in the longitudinal direction. The chips are further shaped by laser-micromachining to have partially-inclined sidewalls. The light extraction efficiencies of such 3D chip geometries are enhanced by ~12% (~8% according to ray-trace simulations), leading to a reduction of junction temperatures. The effective emission area is also increased four times compared to a cubic chip. The stripe LEDs are thus more efficient emitters with reduced luminous exitance, making them more suitable for a wide range of lighting applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (3)

Y. F. Cheung, K. H. Li, R. S. Y. Hui, and H. W. Choi, “Observation of enhanced visible and infrared emissions in photonic crystal thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071104 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of Micro-lens Integrated Flip-chip InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Ghaffarzadeh, “OLED Lighting: The Differentiation Challenge,” Inf. Disp. 30(2), 36–38 (2014).

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED Lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDS) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78(6), 744–752 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

D. H. Sliney, “Laser and LED eye hazards: safety standards,” Opt. Photonics News 8(9), 31–37 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baum, C.

C. Baum and C. Brecher, “Light guide films with LEDs as OLED alternatives”, Proc. LED Professional Symposium 2014, 208–213, 2014.

Brecher, C.

C. Baum and C. Brecher, “Light guide films with LEDs as OLED alternatives”, Proc. LED Professional Symposium 2014, 208–213, 2014.

Cheung, Y. F.

Y. F. Cheung, K. H. Li, R. S. Y. Hui, and H. W. Choi, “Observation of enhanced visible and infrared emissions in photonic crystal thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chien, W.-T.

Choi, H. W.

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of Micro-lens Integrated Flip-chip InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Cheung, K. H. Li, R. S. Y. Hui, and H. W. Choi, “Observation of enhanced visible and infrared emissions in photonic crystal thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071104 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED Lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Egawa, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Feng, C.

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of Micro-lens Integrated Flip-chip InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fu, W. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaffarzadeh, K.

K. Ghaffarzadeh, “OLED Lighting: The Differentiation Challenge,” Inf. Disp. 30(2), 36–38 (2014).

Girkin, J. M.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Griffin, C.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hasanov, N.

Hsiao, S.-L.

Hsieh, C.-T.

Hui, K. N.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, R. S. Y.

Y. F. Cheung, K. H. Li, R. S. Y. Hui, and H. W. Choi, “Observation of enhanced visible and infrared emissions in photonic crystal thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jeon, C. W.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Jimbo, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Kyaw, Z.

Lai, P. T.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, X.-H.

Lehman, B.

A. Wilkins, J. Veitch, and B. Lehman, “LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update,” in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 171–178.

Li, K. H.

Y. F. Cheung, K. H. Li, R. S. Y. Hui, and H. W. Choi, “Observation of enhanced visible and infrared emissions in photonic crystal thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071104 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of Micro-lens Integrated Flip-chip InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, M.-C.

Liu, W.

McConnell, G.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moreno, I.

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED Lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED Lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sliney, D. H.

D. H. Sliney, “Laser and LED eye hazards: safety standards,” Opt. Photonics News 8(9), 31–37 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soga, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED Lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-C.

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Umeno, M.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Veitch, J.

A. Wilkins, J. Veitch, and B. Lehman, “LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update,” in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 171–178.

Wang, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. H.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, J.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wilkins, A.

A. Wilkins, J. Veitch, and B. Lehman, “LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update,” in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 171–178.

Wong, K. K. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Zheng, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, and G. McConnell, “Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-arrayed light-emitting diodes using confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Cheung, K. H. Li, R. S. Y. Hui, and H. W. Choi, “Observation of enhanced visible and infrared emissions in photonic crystal thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071104 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of Micro-lens Integrated Flip-chip InGaN Light-emitting Diodes by Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Health Phys. (1)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDS) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78(6), 744–752 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Y. Fu, K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, K. K. Y. Wong, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Geometrical shaping of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1078 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Inf. Disp. (1)

K. Ghaffarzadeh, “OLED Lighting: The Differentiation Challenge,” Inf. Disp. 30(2), 36–38 (2014).

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED Lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

D. H. Sliney, “Laser and LED eye hazards: safety standards,” Opt. Photonics News 8(9), 31–37 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Wilkins, J. Veitch, and B. Lehman, “LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update,” in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 171–178.

C. Baum and C. Brecher, “Light guide films with LEDs as OLED alternatives”, Proc. LED Professional Symposium 2014, 208–213, 2014.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Microphotographs of the (a) cubic, (b) stripe and (c) ∠-stripe LEDs, driven at 20 mA. Ray-trace diagrams for the respective LEDs are shown in (d), (e) and (f) respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of the cubic, stripe and ∠- stripe LEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microphotographs of the stripe LEDs driven at 50 mA with (a) 2, (c) 4 and (e) 6 pads connected. Cross-sectional emission intensity maps of the respective devices are shown in (b), (d) and (f).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 L-I plots for the cubic, stripe and ∠-stripe LEDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Far-field angular emission profiles for the cubic, stripe and ∠-stripe LEDs obtained by ray-trace simulation; (b) confocal microscopy.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Cross-sectional emission profiles from the (a) cubic, (b) stripe and (c)∠-stripe LEDs along the lateral axis of the chips, obtained by confocal microscopy.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Planar emission intensity maps for the (a) cubic, (b) stripe and (c) ∠-stripe LEDs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Ray-trace diagrams of 5 adjacent (a) cubic and (b) stripe LEDs coupled into a light guide plate.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Junction temperatures of the cubic, stripe and ∠-stripe LEDs at different driving currents.

Metrics