Abstract

We propose a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization diversity scheme in the mid-infrared wavelength range. In consideration of absorption loss in silicon dioxide (SiO2), the polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) is designed and optimized with silicon nitride (SiN) upper-cladding and SiO2 lower-cladding. This asymmetry allows the PSR, which consists of mode-conversion tapers and subsequent mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions, to be fabricated with a simple one-step etching process. Simulation shows that our PSR has good performance with low mode conversion loss (< 0.25 dB) and low crosstalk (< –18 dB) in a very large wavelength range from 4.0 μm to 4.4 μm. The PSR also exhibits large fabrication tolerance with respect to the size deviations in waveguide width, height and refractive index of the upper-cladding. Additionally, PSR devices based on Y-junctions with SiO2 upper-cladding, and SiN upper- and lower-claddings are designed for potential applications at shorter and longer wavelengths, respectively. These PSR devices could facilitate the development of silicon photonic devices in the mid-infrared.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (20)

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guan, Y. Ma, R. Shi, A. Novack, J. Tao, Q. Fang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultracompact silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator for polarization-diversified circuits,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4703–4706 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Design of a SiO₂ top-cladding and compact polarization splitter-rotator based on a rib directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4137–4143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13565–13571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27869–27879 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and W. N. Ye, “Fabrication tolerant and broadband polarization splitter and rotator based on a taper-etched directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17458–17465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, T. Barwicz, B. J. Taylor, and J. K. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3777–3786 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “CMOS-compatible highly efficient polarization splitter and rotator based on a double-etched directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2489–2496 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency low-crosstalk 1310-nm polarization splitter and rotator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Souhan, R. R. Grote, C. P. Chen, H.-C. Huang, J. B. Driscoll, M. Lu, A. Stein, H. Bakhru, K. Bergman, W. M. J. Green, and R. M. Osgood, “Si⁺-implanted Si-wire waveguide photodetectors for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27415–27424 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167–11174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zou, Y. Yu, M. Ye, L. Liu, S. Deng, X. Xu, and X. Zhang, “Short and efficient mode-size converter designed by segmented-stepwise method,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6273–6276 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Qiu, Z. Sheng, H. Li, W. Liu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Fabrication, characterization and loss analysis of silicon nanowaveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2303–2307 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood, “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wideband polarization splitter and rotator with large fabrication tolerance and simple fabrication process,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1227–1229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, H. Y. G. Lin, T. Tiwald, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Low-stress silicon nitride platform for mid-infrared broadband and monolithically integrated microphotonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 732–739 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Xia, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, W. Gao, J. Shu, and Q. Xu, “Suspended Si ring resonator for mid-IR application,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1122–1124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Wang, H. Lin, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Si-CMOS compatible materials and devices for mid-IR microphotonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1474–1487 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar and M. Lončar, “Silicon photonic devices for mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 3(4), 329–341 (2013).

2012 (7)

M. A. Van Camp, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, P. M. Rice, T. Topuria, and W. M. Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009–28016 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fei, L. Zhang, T. Cao, Y. Cao, and S. Chen, “Ultracompact polarization splitter-rotator based on an asymmetric directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 51(34), 8257–8261 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Design of mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” Appl. Opt. 51(15), 2778–2783 (2012).
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J. Kischkat, S. Peters, B. Gruska, M. Semtsiv, M. Chashnikova, M. Klinkmüller, O. Fedosenko, S. Machulik, A. Aleksandrova, G. Monastyrskyi, Y. Flores, and W. T. Masselink, “Mid-infrared optical properties of thin films of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon nitride,” Appl. Opt. 51(28), 6789–6798 (2012).
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D. Dai, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode conversion in tapered submicron silicon ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13425–13439 (2012).
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2011 (3)

2010 (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
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2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Agarwal, A.

Agarwal, A. M.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, H. Y. G. Lin, T. Tiwald, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Low-stress silicon nitride platform for mid-infrared broadband and monolithically integrated microphotonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 732–739 (2013).
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Aleksandrova, A.

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
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Barwicz, T.

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M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
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Bergman, K.

Bienstman, P.

Bowers, J. E.

Cao, T.

Cao, Y.

Cerutti, L.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
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Chashnikova, M.

Cheben, P.

Chen, C. P.

Chen, K. K.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Chen, L.

Q. Xu, L. Chen, M. G. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry’s phase,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5337 (2014).
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L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, and Y. K. Chen, “Compact polarization rotator on silicon for polarization-diversified circuits,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 469–471 (2011).
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Chen, S.

Chen, X.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27869–27879 (2014).
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G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
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Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
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M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
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M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
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Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
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Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y. M.

Cheng, Z.

Chong, H. M. H.

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
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M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
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Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

Dave, U. D.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
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Deng, S.

Ding, L.

Ding, Y.

Doerr, C. R.

Driscoll, J. B.

Duan, N.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Fedosenko, O.

Fei, Y.

Flores, Y.

Fukuda, H.

Fung, C. K. Y.

Galland, C.

Gan, F.

Gao, W.

Gardes, F. Y.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gencarelli, F.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

B. Souhan, R. R. Grote, C. P. Chen, H.-C. Huang, J. B. Driscoll, M. Lu, A. Stein, H. Bakhru, K. Bergman, W. M. J. Green, and R. M. Osgood, “Si⁺-implanted Si-wire waveguide photodetectors for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27415–27424 (2014).
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G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grote, R. R.

Gruska, B.

Guan, H.

Hattasan, N.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Healy, N.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hens, Z.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hensley, J.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, C.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Hu, Y.

Huang, H.

Huang, H.-C.

Huang, Y.

Hvam, J. M.

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

Jaberansary, E.

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jia, Q.

Kartner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kimerling, L.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, H. Y. G. Lin, T. Tiwald, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Low-stress silicon nitride platform for mid-infrared broadband and monolithically integrated microphotonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 732–739 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Wang, H. Lin, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Si-CMOS compatible materials and devices for mid-IR microphotonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1474–1487 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kischkat, J.

Klinkmüller, M.

Kuyken, B.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, F.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Li, C.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, L.

Li, M.

Li, T.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lim, A.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency low-crosstalk 1310-nm polarization splitter and rotator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

Lim, A. E. J.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lin, H.

Lin, H. Y. G.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, H. Y. G. Lin, T. Tiwald, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Low-stress silicon nitride platform for mid-infrared broadband and monolithically integrated microphotonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 732–739 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. T.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, H. Y. G. Lin, T. Tiwald, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Low-stress silicon nitride platform for mid-infrared broadband and monolithically integrated microphotonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 732–739 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Wang, H. Lin, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Si-CMOS compatible materials and devices for mid-IR microphotonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1474–1487 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

A. E. J. Lim, J. Song, F. Qing, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Littlejohns, C. G.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, W.

Liu, X. P.

G. Roelkens, U. D. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. J. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. P. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency low-crosstalk 1310-nm polarization splitter and rotator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency low-crosstalk 1310-nm polarization splitter and rotator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed PSR device which consists of a three-stage taper and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction. (b) Effective refractive indices of the first three modes in a Si waveguide with SiN upper-cladding and SiO2 lower-cladding at 4.0 μm wavelength.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Mode conversion efficiency for the input TM0 mode as a function of L2 for L1 varying from 10 μm (black) to 60 μm (pink), where L3 is set to L1(W3-W2)/(W1-W0). Insets: mode propagation in the taper when L1 = 60 μm and L2 = 150 μm, and the mode profiles in the cross-section along this taper. (b) Mode conversion efficiency in the Y-junction for the TE1 input with different widths of the narrow arm Wn changing from 1.305 μm (black) to 1.005 μm (light blue). All the simulations were performed at 4.0 μm wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(b) Mode propagation in the overall PSR device for the input TE0 and TM0 mode at 4.0 μm wavelength, respectively. (c) Wavelength dependence of the PSR performance in terms of insertion loss (IL), crosstalk (XT) and polarization extinction ratio (PER). The curves below −40 dB are not shown due to simulation accuracy, e.g., PERTE and part of PERTM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(c) Analysis of fabrication tolerance with respect to the parameter deviations in waveguide width ΔW, height ΔH and refractive index of the upper-cladding ΔnSiN, respectively. The simulation wavelength is 4.0 μm. The curves below −40 dB are not shown due to simulation accuracy, e.g., PERTE and part of PERTM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The PSR device with SiO2 upper- and lower-claddings. (a) Schematic of the device based on an asymmetric Y-junction and a bi-level mode-conversion taper. The taper has a waveguide height of 0.45 μm and a slab height of 0.20 μm. (b-c) Mode propagation in the overall device at 3.3 μm wavelength for the TE0 and TM0 input, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The PSR device with SiN upper- and lower-claddings. (a) Schematic of the device based on an asymmetric Y-junction and a bi-level mode-conversion taper. The taper has a waveguide height of 0.80 μm and a slab height of 0.35 μm. (b-c) Mode propagation in the overall device at 6.9 μm wavelength for TE0 and TM0 inputs, respectively.

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