Abstract

White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) resemble light more naturally, with emission spectrum that is comfortable to the human eye. The transparent WOLEDs can be almost invisible by day and can emit a pleasant diffused light at night, allowing the surface light source to shine in both directions, an exciting new lighting technology that could bring new device concepts. However, undesirable angular-dependent emission in transparent WOLEDs is often observed, due to the microcavity effect. In this work, the emission behavior of dual-side emissive transparent WOLEDs was studied experimentally and theoretically. It is found that avoidance of the overlap between the peak wavelengths of the emitters and the resonant wavelength of the organic microcavity moderates the angular-dependent electroluminescence emission behavior, thereby improving the color stability of the transparent white WOLEDs over a broad range of the viewing angle.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with balanced white emission by minimizing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss

Yi-Bo Zhang, Qing-Dong Ou, Yan-Qing Li, Jing-De Chen, Xin-Dong Zhao, Jian Wei, Zhong-Zhi Xie, and Jian-Xin Tang
Opt. Express 25(14) 15662-15675 (2017)

Highly efficient phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes with moderate microcavity and light-recycling filters

Sang-Hwan Cho, Jeong Rok Oh, Hoo Keun Park, Hyoung Kun Kim, Yong-Hee Lee, Jae-Gab Lee, and Young Rag Do
Opt. Express 18(2) 1099-1104 (2010)

Stable angular emission spectra in white organic light-emitting diodes using graphene/PEDOT:PSS composite electrode

Hyunsu Cho, Hyunkoo Lee, Jonghee Lee, Woo Jin Sung, Byoung-Hwa Kwon, Chul-Woong Joo, Jin-Wook Shin, Jun-Han Han, Jaehyun Moon, Jeong-Ik Lee, Seungmin Cho, and Nam Sung Cho
Opt. Express 25(9) 9734-9742 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Influence of organic capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1443–1445 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J. I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Lee, H. Cho, T. W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J. I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Ji, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Xie, S. Liu, H. Zhang, L. Zhang, and B. Li, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with a one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystal anode,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2703–2705 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J. I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J. I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Influence of organic capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1443–1445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

W. Ji, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Xie, S. Liu, H. Zhang, L. Zhang, and B. Li, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with a one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystal anode,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2703–2705 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Becker, H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burns, S.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. W.

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. X.

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, D. H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

Choi, W. H.

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J. I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J. Q.

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

Gather, M. C.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J. I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J. H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Helander, M. G.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, S.

Hsu, Y. J.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huh, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. O.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

Joo, C. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Juang, F. S.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kherani, N.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kietzke, E. L.

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kietzke, T.

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. J.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. Y.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

Koh, T. W.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J. I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laih, L. H.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J. I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. I.

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

Li, B.

Liew, P. K.

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. J.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, S.

Lu, Z.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lussem, B.

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

Ma, D. G.

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moon, C. K.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ng, G. M.

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P. G.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puzzo, D. P.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rieß, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soheilnia, N.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tam, H. L.

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, L. W.

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. X.

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C. C.

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

Yoo, S.

Yoo, S. H.

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yook, K. S.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yun, C.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, T.

Zhu, F. R.

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly Enhanced Light Extraction from Surface Plasmonic Loss Minimized Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. M. Ng, E. L. Kietzke, T. Kietzke, L. W. Tan, P. K. Liew, and F. R. Zhu, “Optical enhancement in semitransparent polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 103505 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. H. Choi, H. L. Tam, F. R. Zhu, D. G. Ma, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “High performance semitransparent phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes with bi-directional and symmetrical illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153308 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013301 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Q. Ding, D. G. Ma, Y. X. Cheng, and L. X. Wang, “Highly efficient single-emitting-layer white organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103503 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

H. W. Chang, J. H. Lee, T. W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, S. H. Yoo, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. P. Puzzo, M. G. Helander, P. G. O’Brien, Z. Wang, N. Soheilnia, N. Kherani, Z. Lu, and G. A. Ozin, “Organic Light-Emitting Diode Microcavities from Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide Photonic Crystals,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1457–1462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Org. Electron. (1)

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The calculated transparency of the transparent WOLEDs, with a configuration of bare ITO/a stack of organic layers (a) 60 nm, (b) 100 nm, (c)120 nm/ LiF (1 nm)/Al (1.5 nm)/Ag (15 nm)/NPB (x nm), as a function of the NPB capping layer over the thickness range from 0 to 84 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The ratio of luminance of EL emission measured from the anode to that from the cathode side of the transparent WOLEDs as a function of current density. (b) The visible light transparency of the different transparent WOLEDs fabricated with bare ITO, and ITO modified with different Ag interlayer thicknesses of 7.5 nm, 10 nm and 12.5 nm, the transparency of ITO/glass is also plotted for comparison.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Emission spectra calculated for the transparent WOLEDs with different cavity lengths of 60 nm, 100 nm and 140 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The calculated radiance as a function of the viewing angle obtained for the emissions from the (a) anode and (b) cathode sides, for transparent WOLEDs with different cavity lengths of 60 nm, 80 nm, 100 nm, 120 nm and 140 nm. The emission distribution of a Lambertian source, the dash line, is also plotted for comparison.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 CIE coordinates (x, y) as a function of the viewing angle, obtained for transparent WOLEDs with different cavity lengths of 60 nm, 80 nm, 100 nm, 120 nm and 140 nm, from (a) anode and (b) cathode sides. The experimental results of the angular-dependent emissions (open triangle symbols) measured from both sides of the transparent WOLEDs, made with an optimized 100 nm thick cavity length, are also presented.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The emission spectra, from anode and cathode, for of a transparent 3-color white WOLED with a 100 nm thick cavity length.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated CIE coordinates (x, y), from (a) anode and (b) cathode, as a function of the viewing angle for the transparent 3-color white WOLEDs with different cavity lengths of 60 nm, 80 nm, 100 nm, 120 nm and 140 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A summary of L, η, PE, CIE coordinates at 0 degree and 60 degree obtained from the anode and cathode sides of the transparent WOLEDs. The measured and calculated luminance ratio of EL emissions from both sides and the results of visible light transparency of the devices are also listed for comparison.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

4 π λ n o r g ( λ ) d o r g cos θ φ a n o d e ( λ , θ ) φ c a t h o d e ( λ , θ ) = 2 m π ,

Metrics