Abstract

GaN LED array in packaging is important for the demand of high optical flux. In order to tighten the whole packaging size, the spacing among LED chips becomes an important factor in the packaging design. This study is to investigate the change of the light extraction when a GaN LED chip array packaging is applied. The shielding effect with various spacing for the GaN LED array with or without silicon encapsulation is obtained. We apply the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method in the simulations to analyze the optical behavior of the two major types of the GaN LED array. The shielding effect is more dominant for bare chip packaging. When a silicone thin dispensing layer is applied, the shielding effect is not obvious because of more light extraction, the neighbor dies play an important role in photon recycling.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Ramane and A. Shaligram, “Optimization of multi-element LED source for uniform illumination of plane surface,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A639–A648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

A. Christensen and S. Graham, “Thermal effects in packaging high power light emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 29(2-3), 364–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

2008 (2)

L. Yang, J. Hu, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different chip sizes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(3), 571–575 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

isC.-C. Sun, T.-X. Lee, S.-H. Ma, Y.-L. Lee, and S.-M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2193 (2006).

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 45(10), 2265–2272 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594101 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng. 43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

S. J. Lee, “Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo photon simulation,” Appl. Opt. 40(9), 1427–1437 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Badano, A.

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bao, K.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

Bermúdez, D.

Chang, Y. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

Chen, Y. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chien, W. T.

Choi, J. H.

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta 455(1-2), 21–25 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christensen, A.

A. Christensen and S. Graham, “Thermal effects in packaging high power light emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 29(2-3), 364–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594101 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fang, R.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Fletcher, R. M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, K. F.

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Glorieux, B.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Graham, S.

A. Christensen and S. Graham, “Thermal effects in packaging high power light emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 29(2-3), 364–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Han, D. S.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hatakoshi, G.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

He, G.

Horng, R. H.

Hsiao, S. L.

Hsieh, C. T.

Hsu, C. P.

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, H. L.

Hu, J.

L. Yang, J. Hu, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different chip sizes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(3), 571–575 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-M.

Ishikawa, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jang, S. H.

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta 455(1-2), 21–25 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W. J.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Kang, X. N.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

Kanicki, J.

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, L.

L. Yang, J. Hu, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different chip sizes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(3), 571–575 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta 455(1-2), 21–25 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kugler, S.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. P.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lai, K. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lardizabal, M. C.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. D.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, T. X.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng. 43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-X.

Lee, X. H.

Lee, Y.-L.

Li, D. R.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng. 43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. H.

H. H. Wu, K. H. Lin, and S. T. Lin, “A study on the heat dissipation of high power multi-chip COB LEDs,” Microelectron. J. 43(4), 280–287 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. C.

Lin, R. C.

Lin, S. T.

H. H. Wu, K. H. Lin, and S. T. Lin, “A study on the heat dissipation of high power multi-chip COB LEDs,” Microelectron. J. 43(4), 280–287 (2012).
[Crossref]

Linder, N.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Wu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Enhancement of light extraction of multi-chips light-emitting diode (LED) modules with various micro-structure arrays,” in 11th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density PackagingIEEE, 2010), pp 1398-1400.

Liu, Z.

Lo, Y. C.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Wu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Enhancement of light extraction of multi-chips light-emitting diode (LED) modules with various micro-structure arrays,” in 11th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density PackagingIEEE, 2010), pp 1398-1400.

Ma, S. H.

Ma, S.-H.

Moreno, I.

Na, S. I.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Osentowski, T. D.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ou, S. L.

Pan, J. W.

Park, S. J.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pasquale, A. J.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Ramane, D.

Robbins, V. M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaligram, A.

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, G. D.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Shin, M. W.

L. Yang, J. Hu, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different chip sizes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(3), 571–575 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta 455(1-2), 21–25 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stauss, P.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Streubel, K. P.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, H.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, W. T. Chien, I. Moreno, C. T. Hsieh, M. C. Lin, S. L. Hsiao, and X. H. Lee, “Calculating Model of Light Transmission Efficiency of Diffusers Attached to a Lighting Cavity,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6137–6148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng. 43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-C.

Tang, L. S.

Ting, Z. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, S. Y.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tzonchev, R. I.

Wang, C. S.

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. Wu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Enhancement of light extraction of multi-chips light-emitting diode (LED) modules with various micro-structure arrays,” in 11th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density PackagingIEEE, 2010), pp 1398-1400.

Wirth, R.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Enhancement of light extraction of multi-chips light-emitting diode (LED) modules with various micro-structure arrays,” in 11th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density PackagingIEEE, 2010), pp 1398-1400.

Wu, H. H.

H. H. Wu, K. H. Lin, and S. T. Lin, “A study on the heat dissipation of high power multi-chip COB LEDs,” Microelectron. J. 43(4), 280–287 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

Yang, L.

L. Yang, J. Hu, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different chip sizes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(3), 571–575 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng. 43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

Zhang, G. Y.

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

Zheng, L.

Zull, H.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Highperformance AlInGaP visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Therm. Eng. (1)

A. Christensen and S. Graham, “Thermal effects in packaging high power light emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 29(2-3), 364–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of LEE of flip-chip light-emitting diode by texturing the bottom side surface of sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406–1408 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. (1)

L. Yang, J. Hu, L. Kim, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different chip sizes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(3), 571–575 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Solid State Lighting (1)

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. J. (1)

H. H. Wu, K. H. Lin, and S. T. Lin, “A study on the heat dissipation of high power multi-chip COB LEDs,” Microelectron. J. 43(4), 280–287 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng. 43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (4)

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes Using Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 4278, 19–25 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE 7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

K. Bao, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from micro-pattern encapsulated GaN-based LED by imprinting,” Proc. SPIE 6910(69100N), 1–8 (2008).

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thermochim. Acta (1)

L. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. H. Jang, and M. W. Shin, “Thermal analysis of LED array system with heat pipe,” Thermochim. Acta 455(1-2), 21–25 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

D. Wu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Enhancement of light extraction of multi-chips light-emitting diode (LED) modules with various micro-structure arrays,” in 11th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density PackagingIEEE, 2010), pp 1398-1400.

C. J. M. Lasance and A. Poppe, Thermal Management for LED Applications (Solid State Lighting Technology and Application Series) (Springer, 2014).

A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

Cree, Inc., http://www.cree.com/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The wire bond chip structure: (a) image by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (b) the simulation structure by the advanced systems analysis program (ASAP)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Structure of the wire-bonding GaN LED: (a) geometry of epitaxy layers; (b) top view of the PSS; (c) side view of the PSS as in (b);(d) the simulation parameters used for wire bond and flip chip LEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) A photo ofthe GaN chip of EZ-1000. (b) The simulation parameters of the thin-GaN with surface texture.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) A photo of surface texture structure of the Cree EZ-1000 chip. (b) Top view of the texture structure. (c) The parameters of different microstructures in the simulation. The cover area indicates the filling factor of each structure in the whole surface.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Images of the wire bond array chips with varying LEDs spacing, (a) without silicone dispensing, and (b) with silicone dispensing.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagrams of the multi-chip packaging, (a) without silicone dispensing, and (b) with silicone dispensing.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The experimental measurement and the corresponding simulation in the case of wire-bonding with different reflectivity of the bottom surface (R) of the flux ratio between the single chip packaging and multiple-chip packaging, (a) without silicone dispensing, and (b) with silicone dispensing.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Images of the seven thin-GaN arrays with different LED chip spacing, (a) without silicone dispensing, (b) with silicone dispensing.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The experimental measurement and the corresponding simulation in the case of thin-GaN with different reflectivity (R) of the flux ratio between the single chip packaging and multiple-chip packaging, (a) without silicone dispensing, and (b) with silicone dispensing.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The detailed analysis for light extraction with silicone dispensing in the case of (a) wire-bonding and (b) thin-GaN. The dash line indicates the LEE by the emitter with single chip packaging.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The schematic diagram of the light distribution inside the silicone cavity.

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