Abstract

Three green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with different In composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated by the X-ray diffraction and the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. It is found that when the In composition increases in the InGaN/GaN MQWs, the PL spectral bandwidth may anomalously decrease with increasing temperature. The reduction of PL spectral bandwidth may be ascribed to the enhanced non-radiative recombination process which may lower the light emission efficiency of the localized luminescent centers with shallow localization energy in the high-In-content InGaN quantum wells and also cause a reduction of integrated PL intensity.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
  2. T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: new properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. J. Wang, S. J. Xu, D. G. Zhao, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, X. D. Shan, and D. P. Yu, “Non-exponential photoluminescence decay dynamics of localized carriers in disordered InGaN/GaN quantum wells: the role of localization length,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13151–13157 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).
  13. N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Northrup, “Impact of hydrogen on indium incorporation at m-plane and c-plane In0.25Ga0.75N surfaces: First-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041306 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: new properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Northrup, “Impact of hydrogen on indium incorporation at m-plane and c-plane In0.25Ga0.75N surfaces: First-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041306 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

2007 (1)

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).

1967 (1)

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bremers, H.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Bruckbauer, J.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calle, F.

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Calleja, E.

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-J.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Danhof, J.

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

De, S.

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Della Sala, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dhar, S.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Di Carlo, A.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dobrovolskas, D.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edwards, P. R.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fiorentini, V.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

Giesen, C.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gokhale, M. R.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hahn, B.

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-H.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hangleiter, A.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Heuken, M.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, L.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Holec, D.

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, C. J.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).

Jenichen, B.

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jia, Q. J.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. S.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, R. Q.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jonen, H.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Kadir, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kappers, M. J.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ketzer, F. A.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Kim, C. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-J.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kozaki, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kruse, A.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Kumar Das, D.

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar Singh, M.

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Langer, T.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Layek, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

Le, L. C.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. S.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lugli, P.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ma, P.

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mahajan, S.

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[Crossref]

Martin, R. W.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Massabuau, F. C. P.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Masui, S.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

McAleese, C.

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mickevicius, J.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miyoshi, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moon, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S. I.

S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).

Nagahama, S.-i.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).

Naranjo, F. B.

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Northrup, J.

J. Northrup, “Impact of hydrogen on indium incorporation at m-plane and c-plane In0.25Ga0.75N surfaces: First-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Okada, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oliver, R. A.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Osinski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peter, M.

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K. H.

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Raja, A.

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rao, D. V. S.

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rao, M.

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rossow, U.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Sahonta, S. L.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schwiegel, A.

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Senoh, N.

S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).

Seong, T.-Y.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shan, X. D.

Song, K.-M.

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sugahara, T.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tamulaitis, G.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tuna, Ö.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vaitkevicius, A.

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Laak, N. K.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Varshni, Y.

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Vierheilig, C.

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. F.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. F.

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. J.

Wang, Y. T.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, X. C.

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: new properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. L.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. J.

Yan, D.

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yanamoto, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. M.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wang, S. J. Xu, D. G. Zhao, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, X. D. Shan, and D. P. Yu, “Non-exponential photoluminescence decay dynamics of localized carriers in disordered InGaN/GaN quantum wells: the role of localization length,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13151–13157 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. J.

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, D. P.

Zeng, Y. P.

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. C.

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. M.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. G.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wang, S. J. Xu, D. G. Zhao, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, X. D. Shan, and D. P. Yu, “Non-exponential photoluminescence decay dynamics of localized carriers in disordered InGaN/GaN quantum wells: the role of localization length,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13151–13157 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J. J.

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wang, S. J. Xu, D. G. Zhao, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, X. D. Shan, and D. P. Yu, “Non-exponential photoluminescence decay dynamics of localized carriers in disordered InGaN/GaN quantum wells: the role of localization length,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13151–13157 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, Q. Sun, J. F. Wang, Y. T. Wang, J. P. Liu, J. Chen, R. Q. Jin, J. J. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Dai, and Q. J. Jia, “Influence of dislocations on photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071908 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. B. Naranjo, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Jenichen, and K. H. Ploog, “Strong localization in InGaN layers with high In content grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 231–233 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. De, D. Kumar Das, A. Layek, A. Raja, M. Kumar Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Optoelectronic behaviors and carrier dynamics of individual localized luminescent centers in InGaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251911 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (2)

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, L. C. Le, L. L. Wu, L. Li, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 540, 46–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, H. Wang, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, Y. T. Wang, Q. J. Jia, and H. Yang, “An experimental study about the influence of well thickness on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Alloys Compd. 489(2), 461–464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

A. Vaitkevičius, J. Mickevičius, D. Dobrovolskas, Ö. Tuna, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, and G. Tamulaitis, “Influence of quantum-confined Stark effect on optical properties within trench defects in InGaN quantum wells with different indium content,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(21), 213512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Moon, D.-J. Kim, K.-M. Song, C.-J. Choi, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Seong, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of thermal and hydrogen treatment on indium segregation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6514–6518 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Holec, Y. Zhang, D. V. S. Rao, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, and C. J. Humphreys, “Equilibrium critical thickness for misfit dislocations in III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123514 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: new properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osinski, J. Lee, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Band-tail model and temperature-induced blue-shift in photoluminescence spectra of InxGa1-xN grown on sapphire,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 332–341 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

Y. J. Yang, P. Ma, X. C. Wei, D. Yan, Y. F. Wang, and Y. P. Zeng, “Design strategies for enhancing carrier localization in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 155, 238–243 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. L. Sahonta, F. C. P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(13), 135107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, N. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting-diodes with quantum-well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Northrup, “Impact of hydrogen on indium incorporation at m-plane and c-plane In0.25Ga0.75N surfaces: First-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based 518 and 488 nm laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1389–1392 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. Danhof, C. Vierheilig, U. T. Schwarz, T. Meyer, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on a sub-micrometer length scale on green light emitting InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248(5), 1270–1274 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

T. Langer, A. Kruse, F. A. Ketzer, A. Schwiegel, L. Hoffmann, H. Jonen, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Origin of the “green gap”: Increasing nonradiative recombination in indium-rich GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7–8), 2170–2172 (2008).

Physica (1)

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (0002) ω–2θ scan curves of Samples W24, W33, and W39, denoted by black, red, and blue lines, respectively. The inset shows the relationship between the satellite peaks’ FWHM and the peaks’ order for all samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 RT PL spectra of Samples W24 (black), W33 (red), and W39 (blue) measured under the same conditions. The peak energy (spectral bandwidth) of Samples W24, W33 and W39 is 2.44 eV (200 meV), 2.36 eV (256 meV) and 2.32 eV (308 meV), respectively, which are obtained by Gaussian fitting.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature-dependent PL peak energy for three Samples W24, W33, and W39, denoted by black, red, and blue squares, respectively. The dot lines are guide for eye.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized PL spectral bandwidth as a function of temperature for Samples W24, W33, W39, and bulk GaN, denoted by black squares, red circles, blue triangles, and green diamonds, respectively. The dot lines are guide for eye.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Narrowing of the PL spectra of Samples W24, W33 and W39 with temperature rising. The PL peak intensity is normalized individually in order to clearly observe that the narrowing mainly occurs at the higher energy side with temperature increasing. The arrows indicate the direction of temperature rising.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagrams indicating the possible mechanism of the reduction of PL spectral bandwidth with increasing temperature for Samples W33 and W39. (a) At low temperature, carriers exist in all LLCs where the RR process dominate, (b) at middle temperature, more carriers move into the deepest LLCs and the RR process still dominate in all LLCs, (c) at high temperature, carriers redistribute in all LLCs while the NRR process dominate the recombination in shallow LLCs.

Equations (1)

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W n = W 0 + ln 2 n Δ θ M ( σ / Λ ) .

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